Given the range of reported year–to–year fluctuations in the Ontario population (±50%), the current Acadian Flycatcher breeding population in Canada is estimated to be approximately 50 (range of 25–75) breeding pairs (including some polygynous pairs), or 64 (range 32–100) territorial males, or 112 (60–180) adults. Estimated Canadian population (individuals): 110 . 2008). The female typically lays 3 eggs in a cup nest suspended from the outer branches of a tree, at a height of 3 to 9 m. Pairs will usually re–nest if a nest fails and will sometimes nest again after having a successful nest. She has more than 10 years’ work experience focusing on birds at risk, breeding bird surveys, bird banding, migration monitoring, and landbird conservation in Ontario. Fauth, P.T. It winters in Central America and northern South America from Nicaragua to Ecuador and Venezuela. 2007). 2nd Pennsylvania Breeding Bird Atlas. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Further to the Terms and conditions for this website, some of the photos, drawings, and graphical elements found in material produced by COSEWIC are subject to copyrights held by other organizations and by individuals. The home range of breeding males is therefore considerably larger than the territory size. Update COSEWIC status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. 2000). Most sites surveyed received only one visit, but follow–up visits were made to most sites where Acadian Flycatchers were detected on the first visit. Since 1997, the small, localized population in Canada has been the focus of extensive surveys and intensive studies carried out under the direction of the national Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. Fall departure dates are not well documented but, given their extended breeding period, Ontario birds likely begin their fall migration anytime from late July to early September. Bird nesting ecology in a forest defoliated by gypsy moths. [accessed February 2009]. The breeding range of this species corresponds closely to the Eastern Avifaunal Biome, being widely distributed in forested landscapes east of the Great Plains (Rich et al. and P.L. MBCA 1994. Shustack. Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part 1: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Electronic spreadsheet. Iverson, and A.M. Prasad. 2008. Dawson, and B.A.
It is an insectivore. In addition to the distinctive peet–sa territorial song, males and females have other characteristic vocalizations that can provide clues as to breeding status and nest locations. Acadian Flycatcher. Eagles, and F.M. The species is also considered to be a forest interior species, meaning that it avoids forest edges and build their nests in areas that are more than 100 meters from the forest edge. The lower figure is based on the number of unmated males reported from intensive surveys at core sites that traditionally support multiple birds (e.g., 3 of 29 males in 2002–03), and is an underestimate because it does not include unmated birds in marginal habitats at other sites. The Acadian Flycatcher is a late–spring migrant, with males arriving on territory in southern Ontario starting in mid–May. data). 33 pp. 2002. Range The Acadian flycatcher is a neotropical migrant. In Canada, the Acadian Flycatcher occurs in very low numbers in the Carolinian area of southern Ontario. Black phoebe. Auk 26:430, Saunders, W.E. The upper part of the bill is dark; the lower part is yellowish. Under this Act, it is prohibited to kill, harm, or collect adults, young, and eggs. The Acadian Flycatcher is mostly socially monogamous, but there are many documented instances of polygyny (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Almost all atlas squares (10 x 10 km) in the Carolinian and Lake Simcoe–Rideau atlas regions in southern Ontario received some coverage in both atlases and most received more than 20 hours of coverage. Thus, the Canadian population in 2007 is estimated to be about double the actual counts, or 112 adults (64 territorial males or 48 pairs). From the southern areas of New Hampshire, west through Maine, through New York to the southern boundaries of the Great Lakes. Collins, and E.H. Dunn. Status: Locally uncommon regular spring migrant southeast, rare casual elsewhere. 2008b. Sillett, R.T. Holmes. Although annual site occupancy is somewhat intermittent in Ontario owing to natural turnover of individuals, the species displays strong long–term attachment to particular sites, and routinely recolonizes them so long as they retain favourable breeding habitat. Regional forest cover is below the 30% minimum guideline for sustaining forest bird biodiversity (Environment Canada 2004) in all parts of the Carolinian region, and is less than 5% in some parts of the region. Carolinian Canada. Like other flycatchers, the species mainly forages in flight, catching flying insects such as bees, wasps, ants, beetles, and moths. Effects of selective logging on breeding bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests in Louisiana. BBS routes consist of 50 roadside points along randomly selected, stratified routes throughout North America. COSEWIC Range: Ontario
See text. http:/bird.atlasing.org/Atlas/OH/Main.html [accessed October 2008]. Don Sutherland, Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Peterborough, Ontario. Verbal communication with A. Heagy. Auk 126:543–553. Flaxman (2004) found that half of the occupied sites are in or near protected areas, but only one quarter of the 70,000 ha of potential habitat was in or near protected areas. Acadian Flycatchers look like other members of the Empidonax group of flycatchers; however, its larger size, more olive-green colouration, and longer tail can be distinguishing features. Couch's kingbird. 2000. 165 pp. and A.D. Rodewald. It is associated with freshwater habitat. It breeds in eastern North America, and winters in Central America and northwestern South America (Figure 1). Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2007). 28 pp. 2003; and Heagy and Badzinski 2008). The continental BBS trend of −0.1%/yr (p=0.61, n=973) for the period 1966–2007 is not statistically different from zero and suggests that the Acadian Flycatcher population has remained relatively stable across its North American range over the past 50 years. 1994. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON. [Accessed September 2008]. [accessed 27 October 2008]. Nesting success of Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in floodplain forest corridors. The incubation period is about 14 days; incubation and brooding is by the female only. Is the total population severely fragmented? Nearby areas with a more open canopy and higher regeneration cover are important during the critical post–fledging period (Burke 2007a). 159 pp. Single–day occurrences of single birds observed in suitable habitat (and sometimes unsuitable habitat) in June are generally considered to be late migrants or wandering non–breeders. This species may also be vulnerable to the spread of invasive alien plant species that alter forest structure by increasing understorey density and/or suppress the regeneration of native trees and shrubs (e.g., invasive honeysuckle shrubs, Lonicera spp., and Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata). For example, until recently, flowering dogwood was a fairly common shrub in parts of southern Ontario within the Acadian Flycatcher’s primary breeding range. Nests located near forest edges, roads, or urban development are generally less successful and produce fewer young than nests located in higher–quality habitats, such as in the interior of a large mature forest more than 600 m from the nearest edge. Today, there is relatively little hab… Regardless, nests are nearly always suspended from the forks of lateral branches that extend more or less horizontally from the trunk; this particular growth form is a key feature of all the aforementioned species favoured by nesting Acadian Flycatchers (J. McCracken pers. 2000). Persistence of the Canadian population is believed to be dependent on immigration from the large population in adjacent states (especially Ohio and Pennsylvania). Wildlife species assessed by COSEWIC as Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern will be considered for legal protection and recovery (or management) under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). In upland situations, it largely avoids forest edges and is therefore rarely found in small isolated forest fragments. However, it takes many decades before re–forested (or heavily harvested) areas attain sufficient maturity to be attractive to Acadian Flycatchers. 2006. Provided that breeding habitat remains suitable, many sites in Ontario show this kind of repeating pattern over several decades. 2005. However, given the consistency of past survey results, it seems probable that about half of all occupied sites were included in the 2007 surveys. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2008. The Willow Flycatcher is endangered because of its loss of habitat due to cowbird parasitism and its competition with the Alder Flycatcher. 1-12 pp.
Parasitism rates in the US range are highly variable across landscapes, ranging from 0% in areas of continuous forest, to 3%–7% in areas with high forest cover, to 20%–50% in areas with less than 30% forest cover (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Fauth and Cabe 2005; Hazler et al. ONRS (Ontario Nest Record Scheme) 2008. Allen et al. Comparison of habitat features at nest sites and post–fledgling use of sites for Acadian Flycatcher and Hooded Warbler. 2008). Marked year–to–year differences in pairing success suggest that the sex ratio of these influxes is skewed towards males, which is consistent with the observed differential timing of spring migration by sex. However, unless a regulation is made earlier, habitat protection for this species will not be in place until June 2013. Bradstreet, G.S. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. The Ohio study covered a rural–urban gradient and found that productivity was significantly lower in more urbanized areas (Rodewald and Shustack 2008; Rodewald 2009). On a finer scale, habitat degradation has been observed at several Acadian Flycatcher sites due to heavy logging, the spread of invasive alien plants, and new house construction (Recovery Team data). For enquiries, contact us. 2006). Of the dozen or more maddeningly similar species in the Empidonax genus, the cheery Acadian Flycatcher is the common one of mature forests of the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic U.S. The Acadian Flycatcher was designated as "Endangered" Species in 2000 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). Audrey Heagy is a Bird Conservation Planning Biologist with Bird Studies Canada, a non–profit, non–governmental bird research organization with headquarters in Port Rowan, Ontario. In ravine situations, however, territories can be linear and the species appears to be less sensitive to edge effects. Version: North American Landbird Conservation Plan 2004. In Ontario, many June records of single singing males present in suitable (or marginal) habitat for one or a few days appear to be late migrants or wandering individuals that have overshot or not yet reached their breeding grounds. This species is rarely encountered during migration in Ontario (James 1991), at least in part because it is easily confused with more common congeners. The explosive peet-sah, and its high-pitched twitter as it flies from perch to perch, are both distinctive. KW405–05–0215, Species at Risk Recovery Program, Environment Canada.
Endangered. Profile by Aidan Healey: The Acadian Flycatcher is a bird that experienced birders will often consider a challenge to identify. 2007). Huebert, C. 2007. This rate is similar to the annual reproductive productivity of about 1.6 fledged young per pair (n=193, range 0 to 7 young per pair per season) over a 6–year study in Ohio but about half the seasonal fecundity rate of 1.8 female fledglings per adult female (n=30) per season reported in a study in an extensively forested area in Virginia (Fauth and Cabe 2005; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). The Acadian has longer primary projection than those two similar species, but that is hard to gauge without more photos. 2007). Conservation Biology 13:58–66. Throughout its breeding range, the Acadian Flycatcher is a habitat specialist, nesting in mature closed–canopy forests with an open understorey. The Acadian Flycatcher was designated as “Endangered” Species in 2000 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). BBS long–term trends for Ohio and Pennsylvania over the 1966–2007 period show declines of 2.3%/yr (p=0.04, n=53), and 0.4%/yr (p=0.28, n=78), respectively (Sauer et al. Urban–associated habitat alteration promotes brood parasitism of Acadian Flycatchers. Adults have olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars and a wide bill. Godfrey, W.E. Partners in Flight (PIF). ACFLs in Elgin, Middlesex and Chatham–Kent: 2001 summary. The species was designated Endangered by the … However, many areas of potentially suitable habitat on private lands in the Carolinian region have never been searched. Conference Casebook. Long broad-based bill with yellow-orange lower mandible. IAO is <500 km², but there is no evidence for decline, fragmentation or extreme fluctuation in populations, habitat or range. In ravine and riparian settings in Ontario and the northeastern U.S., this species shows a strong preference for sites with an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) component (Martin 2007; Becker et al. This engaging little Acadian Flycatcher loves moist streamsides, and bottomland hardwood forest and is the most abundant of the Empidonax flycatchers found in Tennessee.. No information is available on nutrition, energetics, metabolism, or temperature regulation (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). The Acadian Flycatcher is common in the eastern United States. Robinson. Figure 1. Multiple territories (up to 3) were found at eight sites. comm. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. In size, it is slightly larger than a house sparrow, and in appearance it is similar to other flycatchers of the genus Empidonax. Print. The wintering range of the Acadian Flycatcher extends from the Caribbean slope of Nicaragua, south through Costa Rica, Panama, northern and western Columbia, northwestern Venezuela and western Ecuador (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; see Figure 1). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Breeding season records from northern New England since the 1980s indicate an expansion of the historic breeding range in the northeastern United States (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). All counties in the Carolinian region now have tree–cutting bylaws except for Essex and Chatham–Kent (OWA 2009). Alan Dextrase, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. 1998. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Acadian Flycatcher populations remained roughly stable between 1966 and 2015, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Habitat loss and degradation are the biggest threats to Acadian Flycatchers. Page, A.M. and M.D. Auk. In Canada, the Acadian flycatcher occurs in very low numbers in the Carolinian area of southern Ontario. Preliminary quantitative analysis (Tischendorf 2003; see, Persistence in Canada apparently reliant upon immigration from, Global population of 4.7 million individuals breeding in eastern United States. Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):Preliminary analysis suggests that persistence of the Canadian population relies on regular immigration of at least small numbers of breeding adults from the adjacent states. Widespread habitat loss threatens the species and has raised conservation concerns. and P.R. This work contributes to and supplements related recovery and conservation efforts. [accessed 25 October 2008]. Acadian Flycatcher online maps (provisional data). No estimates available for the other 19 squares. Recovery of National Endangered Wildlife (RENEW). data). 4 pp. Tear, and M.E. Status at SWCR: Rare breeding bird. Website: [accessed 14 October 2008]. COSEWIC Status: Endangered
The Canadian Field–Naturalist 114:689–691. Juvenal, Basic, and Alternate plumages are all similar but, on close examination, subtle differences in plumage can often be used to distinguish young birds through to the end of their first breeding season (Pyle 1997). 262 pp. Its ability to use different nest trees may be important because some of the preferred nest tree species (e.g., hemlock and beech) are being decimated by invasive forest pests (Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and beech bark disease, Nectria gallingea) in the northeastern United States, and similar tree mortality is expected to occur in southern Ontario within the next decade. Nestlings and fledglings are fed by both adults. Nesting success of a songbird in a complex floodplain forest landscape in Illinois, USA: local fragmentation vs. vegetation structure. 15 pp.plus appendices. ), it is illegal to take, transport, possess, process, or sell any wild animal on the Wisconsin Endangered and Threatened Species List (ch. McCracken, J., D. Martin, I.Bisson, M. Gartshore, and R. Knapton. In tableland forests, nests are often situated over vernal pools, trails or patches with little or no ground cover. Females generally arrive about a week later than males (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). plus appendices. Johnsgard, J. Kren, and W.C. Scharf. 2005). The Ontario Planning Act and the Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) discourages development in the “significant habitat” of endangered and threatened species, including the Acadian Flycatcher (OMMAH2005). : 819–953–3215Fax: 819–994–3684E–mailWebsite. NR 27, Wis. Admin. Recovery Initiatives |
Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. This estimate is supported by data on banded adults returning to their previous year’s breeding site. She was the Regional Coordinator for the Long Point region for the Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas from 2003–05. Stansberry, C.D. Allen Woodliffe, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham, Ontario. Extremely similar to several other species, especially Alder and Willow Flycatchers. Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) Status in Canada: Endangered. Since 1995 there have been a few Canadian band encounters, including a colour–marked individual captured during spring migration at Long Point that was originally banded the previous summer as a breeding adult at a traditional site about 10 km northwest of the banding station (Long Point Bird Observatory unpubl. YOUR BIRD MOMENT: Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) COSEWIC status: Endangered Acadian Flycatchers look like other members of the Empidonax group of flycatchers… The current Canadian distribution represents approximately 1% of the total global breeding range. Robinson. Ontario Birds at Risk: Status and Conservation Needs. Fall migration records of this species are extremely rare. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. The Acadian Flycatcher is listed as Endangered federally and appears on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. Quick Facts: It is a rare breeding bird in Canada but has nested at both the Nursery Tract and the Turkey Point … Provincial Policy Statement. Hazler, K.R., A.J. The study predicted a 93% risk of extirpation after 100 years, given a starting population size of 30 breeding pairs and no immigration. In the 1980s, several new breeding locations were discovered scattered throughout the Carolinian region, likely the result of increased coverage during the first breeding bird atlas (Speirs 1985; Woodliffe 1987; James 1991; Austen et al. Unpublished report for the Acadian Flycatcher & Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. 11 pp. Unpublished Report for Environment Canada, Interdepartmental Recovery Fund Project # 31, FY 2002–03. At least in some settings, this species is negatively impacted by openings in the forest canopy (e.g., due to selective logging or tree mortality caused by invasive pests), anthropogenic edges, increasing forest fragmentation, and urbanization (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Bakerman and Rodewald 2006; Hetzel and Leberg 2006; Hoover et al. Natural Heritage/Natural History Inc., Toronto, ON. 4 pp. However, there was a 13% decline of their population since 1966(All About Birds). Black legs, feet. Males start to arrive in Ontario in mid–May (James 1991). The species is thought to have been more widespread and numerous in Canada prior to the clearing of forests in the early 1800s. 2006. Will. Acadian FlycatcherThe Acadian flycatcher is a small flycatcher. Effects of selective logging on forest bird populations in a fragmented landscape. Habitat protection for endangered, threatened and extirpated species under the Endangered Species Act, 2007. Information on trends in wintering and migration habitat is not available. 1994. It favours species of nest trees that have a particular growth form. and T. Taylor. The Canadian population is at the northern limit of the species’ breeding range, the edge of which is presumably limited by climatic tolerances because apparently suitable forest habitat is extensive farther north outside the current breeding range (Deschamps and McCracken 1998). What is NCC doing to conserve habitat for this species? Breeding and wintering distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher, Figure 2. Gerwin. 123:368–382. North American Bird Bander 33:67–68. The Acadian Flycatcher is identified as one of 195 species of Continental Importance in the North American Landbird Conservation Plan because 98% of its global population breeds within the Eastern Avifaunal Biome, and agencies in that avifaunal region have a high stewardship responsibility for the conservation of this species (Rich et al. call / song. 2009. The bird lives in the understory of woods with a closed canopy. Nest success rates in the species are highly variable from region to region and year to year. Brown, C.R., M.B. 19 pp. Wilson, R.R. This could also be an Alder or Willow Flycatcher. Documents. Heagy, A., D. Martin, and J. McCracken. Master, and R.S. Taxonomy Group: Birds
plus appendices. The females choose breeding sites and build nests of vegetal debris and spider silk. Although there is no quantitative estimate of the relative amount of suitable habitat available in ravine versus tableland settings in southern Ontario, it appears that ravine settings are favoured by Acadian Flycatchers here, perhaps because these sites are less likely to be exposed to intensive logging practices and hence have relatively undisturbed older–growth features. The Breeding Birds of Québec: Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Southern Québec. Best distinguished from other flycatchers by habitat and voice. This report benefited from comments received from Peter Blancher, Ruben Boles, Dick Cannings, Britt Corriveau, Alan Dextrase, Lyle Friesen, Vicki Friesen, Christian Friis, Richard Knapton, Darren Irwin, Marty Leonard, Angela McConnell, Jon McCracken, Patrick Nantel, and Don Sutherland. Dusky-capped flycatcher. The Acadian Flycatcher is listed as Endangered federally and appears on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. pp. It has greenish-brown upperparts, a grayish-white throat, a white lower breast, a light yellow belly, white wing bars, and a white eye ring. Due to a large, stable population, the Acadian Flycatcher has … Final report to Environment Canada. Important food items include wasps, bees, ants, moths, beetles, and flies (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Longevity records for Acadian Flycatcher and White–eyed Vireo following prescribed timber harvest. 2008. This was followed by a trend of reoccupation of its former range starting in the 1960s, likely facilitated by maturation of second–growth forests in the northeastern United States (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). This assumes that potential habitat is evenly distributed throughout the EO, which is probably not the case, because private lands are generally exposed to higher intensities of forest management than public lands. However, a more recent meta–analysis of area and edge effects found that its occurrence is consistent with edge–avoidance and that it does not show significant patch–size effects (Parker et al. The 1998 data suggest that there are still between 35 and 50 pairs in Canada. Plumages of both sexes are similar but males are significantly larger than females and the combination of wing chord and tail length measurements can be used to discriminate between the sexes (Wilson 1999). [accessed 27 October 2008]. Cassin's kingbird. Quick Facts: Martin, D. 2001. Unpublished report to the Endangered Species Recovery Fund, World Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian Wildlife Service. Range. Woodliffe, P.A. Males and females look alike. Most non–breeding records are of spring migrants at birding hotspots and bird banding stations along the shores of Lakes Erie, Huron, and Ontario. Brown-crested flycatcher. 24 September 2007. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. Several municipalities have designated significant wildlife habitat, significant woodlands and valley lands in their Official Plans. Most Canadian breeding records fall within the Carolinian biogeographic region, which is generally equivalent to the provincial Lake Erie–Lake Ontario and the federal Lake Erie Lowland ecoregions. Clutch size is generally 3 eggs and ranges from 1 to 4. (compiler). 2007). Provisions for habitat protection under these Acts do not presently apply to Acadian Flycatcher. However, the conclusions should be viewed as preliminary, because the study was based upon limited data and conservative estimates. Outside of the breeding season, this species uses a broad range of habitats, but deforestation on the wintering grounds is a potential concern (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). BirdLife International. Snell, and H.G. Acadian Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-gray upperparts, pale gray throat, distinctive pale yellow eye-ring, white lower breast, and faint yellow wash on belly and undertail coverts. 2000. The paucity of inter–year encounters of individuals banded as nestlings suggests that young generally disperse to other sites to breed (dispersal distance unknown). Throughout the Carolinian Forest region of Ontario, most of the remaining forest patches are very small (less than three hectares) and only an extremely small percentage of them is large enough to meet the species’ requirements. Point Pelee is a home to many rare, threatened and endangered species, some of the rare animals are the eastern mole, mink, white-tailed deer and coyotes. Sign up with Google. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Least flycatcher (E. minimus) has lighter-colored undersides.
In The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Wings are olive-gray with two buff wing bars. 2004b. Seventy–five percent of the population breeds in three Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) with extensive forest cover: the Appalachian Mountains, Southeastern Coastal Plain, and Central Hardwood regions. The Acadian Flycatcher or Green-crested Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. Iñigo–Elias, D.N. In tableland settings, it nests in mature upland beech–maple woods and lowland soft maple swamps, often at the interface of wetland and upland knolls (Martin 2007; D. Sutherland pers. 1302 pp. 2008. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. Nest productivity statistics for Acadian Flycatcher nests in southern Ontario, 2001–04, Table 2. The Acadian Flycatcher was first designated as Endangered in Canada by COSEWIC in April 1994, and this status was last re–examined and confirmed in November 2000. Conservation Biology 19:1157–1167. Rodewald, A.D. and D.P. There is currently no evidence of spatial population structuring within the Canadian or North American population of this species. Atlas data from adjacent jurisdictions (New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio) show stable or increasing trends. [accessed 25 October 2008]. 334–345 In Cadman, M.D., D.A. Baltz. Given that search effort on private lands is limited and that a few new sites are being found every year, it is clear that a number of birds are being missed during these periodic surveys. Some of the atlas records with possible breeding evidence likely represent late migrants or prospecting birds. Fledglings are fed by both parents for at least 14 days and remain in the vicinity of the nest for up to 21 days. 2008. It is around 5 inches in length. Flaxman, M. 2004. Search. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. These influxes may double the population in some years (Friesen et al. 2008), the overall Acadian Flycatcher population in North America appears to be reasonably well monitored by the BBS (detected on 973 routes situated throughout the US breeding range). 0:00 / Acadian flycatcher (call / song) call, song. Aerial foraging sallies are directed at food items gleaned on leaves in the understorey and lower canopy vegetation layers, from 2 to 12 m in height. Existing protection, status, and ranks COSEWIC assessed this species as Endangered … Territorial birds are reported fairly regularly during early summer at Point Pelee National Park, but breeding has not been confirmed (Wormington 2006). Beck, D. Lepage, and A.R. James. All are also impacted by an extensive list of invasive species (fungi, insects, disease, earthworms, plants, etc.) 2008). 2004; Rodenhouse et al. McFarland, J.D. The higher figure is based on the number of singing males reported during extensive surveys (e.g., 19 of 36 males in the 2007 survey), which include males that were found only on a single visit. Acadian Flycatcher Moucherolle vert Empidonax virescens Information, images and range maps on over 1,000 birds of North America, including sub-species, vagrants, introduced birds and possibilities . Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Species at Risk Section, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Natural Resources Management Division. Are they endangered? Threats |
Carolinan Woodland Species at Risk (website). 732 pp. The Acadian Flycatcher, as with other members of this genus, is best identified by song. Results from the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario and the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team indicate that the distribution has changed little since the 1990s. Due to her extensive field experience, she is familiar with most of the known Acadian Flycatcher breeding sites in Ontario. Acadian flycatchers look very similar to closely related birds like alder flycatchers, yellow-belied flycatchers, willow flycatchers, and least flycatchers. Although previously considered a solitary species, high rates of extra–pair fertilizations were documented in Pennsylvania, with most extra–pair fertilizations involving males that had forayed a kilometre or more from their territory rather than the males in neighbouring territories (Woolfenden et al. Brittingham, and C.B. In southern woods in summer, the short explosive song of the Acadian Flycatcher comes from shady spots along streams or near swamps. Rich, T.D., C.J. Martin, D. 2005. How Much Habitat is Enough? Annual re–use of particular breeding sites in Ontario is often intermittent or sporadic; hence,“traditional” Acadian Flycatcher sites here show a pattern of intermittent occupancy (Martin 2007; Recovery Team unpubl. Vagrants have occurred in Quebec and British Columbia (Godfrey 1986; Gauthier and Aubry 1996). Dave Martin, Debbie Badzinski, Jon McCracken, and Angela McConnell provided copies of unpublished reports and records prepared for the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. Reasons for designation:In Canada, this species is restricted to certain types of mature forest in southern Ontario. Status report on the Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, in Canada. Robert Craig and Don Sutherland provided Acadian Flycatcher information from the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database. Threatened. The Acadian Flycatcher is a small migratory songbird. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, ON. The Acadian Flycatcher’s life cycle is fairly typical of other small passerines; most information below is summarized from Whitehead and Taylor (2002). Ruth, and T.C. 2008). 395 pp. Simulation experiments using this model suggested that one immigrating breeding female every 2 years may be sufficient to eliminate the extinction risk. The above percentage figures do not necessarily represent the actual relative importance of individual tree species, because the high use of species like hemlock and flowering dogwood was only recently discovered during special search efforts by the Recovery Team in the last decade or so. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) meets at least once a year to assess the status of wildlife species. Acadian Flycatcher. Woolfenden, B.E., B.M. When was Acadian Ambulance created? It is presently listed as Endangered under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA 2002), Schedule 1. Population estimates for the two species were 38 individuals and 80176 breeding pairs, respectively. COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal entities (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non–government science members and the co–chairs of the species specialist subcommittees and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittee. 2008). It also is listed as Endangered provincially and is protected under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007. Total survey effort in each of these coordinated surveys was similar, although there were differences in the sites covered. Lawrence Plain BCR, which includes southern Ontario, the south shores of lakes Erie and Ontario (New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania), and the St. Lawrence River valley (Quebec and New York) (PIF 2008). Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas results also suggest a stable or increasing population over the past two decades. The total Canadian population consists of an estimated 50 mated pairs (25–75 pairs in any given year) with an IAO of ≤200 km² scattered over a relatively large area (EO of some 35,000 km²).
Report for Environment Canada’s Habitat Stewardship Program. Goguen. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). 2008. Stutchbury, B., pers.
2008; Rodewald and Shustack 2008; Rodewald 2009). 1985. Adults are small in size (13 to 15 cm long) and have triangle-shaped heads. Brewer, D., A. Diamond, E.J. Consequently, Acadian Flycatcher breeding habitat is also vitally important to many other Canadian species at risk. Distribution: The Acadian Flycatcher is part of the Empidonax group. Acadian flycatchers don't have any known positive economic impact on humans. Rustay, J.M. Burke, P. 2006. Urban flight: understanding individual and population–level responses of Nearctic–Neotropical migratory birds to urbanization. Breeding distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario, showing overall extent of occurrence (adapted from Cadman et al. Best distinguished from other flycatchers by habitat and voice. Rosenberg, A.O. Protection |
Though recent field work has led to the discovery of a new breeding area and a few additional sites, the population is still at a low level and shows no signs of increasing in Canada. Females lay one egg per day until a clutch of three or so creamy white, brown-spotted eggs is complete. Males and females appear similar, and both have greenish-olive heads and upperparts … The Acadian Flycatcher is a medium– to long–distance neotropical migrant. Evolutionary genetics of flycatchers: sibling species in the genera Empidonax and Contopus. 1910. Forest Bird Monitoring Program Database. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON. Planning decisions requiring municipal approval must be consistent with the PPS. Acadian Flycatchers are listed as an endangered species in Canada, with only 35 to 50 nesting pairs occurring annually. The Canadian population is estimated to be 25 to 75 breeding pairs, or 60 to 180 adults, including polygynous birds. Less than half of the known breeding sites are occupied in any given year, and most sites are occupied only sporadically. 2008. Information on predation of fledged young and adults is not available. Website: [accessed October 2008]. Within a physiographic region, this species exhibits a high degree of habitat specificity at various scales (Bakerman and Rodewald 2006).
Sauer, J.R., J.E. Acadian Flycatcher Species Guidance5 of 7PUB ER-685 (last updated October 8, 2018) According to Wisconsin’s Endangered Species Law (s. 29.604, Wis. To estimate the total population, a further extrapolation is needed to account for the proportion of the population that occurs on sites that were not surveyed in 2007. 2002/2003 Report for Recovery Team Meeting, 7 pp. How do they interact with us? 2004). Johnson, N.K.and C. Cicero. This includes deciduous forests in the eastern United States west to Texas. The PPSalso provides some protection to forests, including enabling municipal tree–cutting bylaws, and providing protection for designated significant woodlands and valley lands. Dark wings with distinct white wingbars. Eagles, and F.M. Other members of this suite that are presently identified as species at risk in Canada include Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea; Endangered), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina; Threatened), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea; Special Concern), and Louisiana Waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla; Special Concern). It also is separated from Acadian Flycatcher by its yellow chin and throat. At Long Point, it is an irregular rare spring migrant, with a maximum of 8 individuals banded in a year (Long Point Bird Observatory unpubl. Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. 2009). Journal of Animal Ecology 77:83–91. 2004). Nest predation is the most common cause of nest failure. Feather and blood samples collected in 2003 from Acadian Flycatchers breeding in Canada and the Great Lakes states have not yet been analyzed (Woolfenden and Stutchbury 2003; Stutchbury, pers. These additional sites include historic sites that have been re–occupied, previously unoccupied sites that have been newly colonized, and birds found at sites that have not been previously surveyed. Even sites that have supported multiple pairs in some years show a pattern of intermittent occupancy. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. The Acadian Flycatcher is often used as a focal species for forest bird research in eastern North America because it is considered relatively easy to study, and is an indicator of forest habitat conditions at a range of scales. Previous COSEWIC status reports on this species were produced by Ross James (2000), and Annette Page and Mike Cadman (1994). The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2007. 1998. Males and females look alike. Deschamps, V. and J.D. Report for Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Final Report – Contract No. Website: [accessed March 2009]. Johnson.1984. The Acadian flycatcher breeds only in North America, primarily in the eastern half of the United States where the species is widespread and common. Cordilleran flycatcher. It's Free. Systematic Zoology 33:205–216. The 95 nesting attempts tracked in Ontario for the 2001–2004 period fledged an average of 1.7 young per female per year (Table 1). In the winter, the Acadian Flycatcher lives in lowland tropical forests and second growth. 1999). Draft National Recovery Strategy for Carolinan Woodlands and Associated Species at Risk: Phase 1. Cadman, M. 1999. The Acadian Flycatcher population in Canada may not be self–sustaining due to its small size and scattered distribution. Recolonization of sites is common, provided that habitat remains suitable. In such cases, some restrictions on the use, reproduction or communication of such copyrighted work may apply and it may be necessary to seek permission from rights holders prior to use, reproduction or communication of these works. Since 1990 she has worked as a biologist for non–profit environmental organizations and consulting firms. 2007. It is the only breeding empidonax in the south eastern states. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? Matthews, K.P. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. [Annette M Page; Michael D Cadman; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.] Ottawa. 2005). 2009). By 1986, total forest cover in southern Ontario had increased to about 19%, but most of this consisted of second–growth replacement forests and the extent of original forest had declined to only 5.8% of total land cover (Larson et al. Godschalk. Tischendorf, L. 2003. There are also some summer records of territorial males at the Long Point and Big Creek National Wildlife Areas, but these are believed to have been unmated birds (J. McCracken pers. Volume II. No subspecies are recognized and no geographic variation is known (Pyle 1997; Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Due to its current Endangered status, the Acadian Flycatcher is identified as a Priority Species in the landbird conservation plan for southern Ontario (OPIF 2008). Update COSEWIC status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. x + 38 pp. This species has been detected on a few Forest Bird Monitoring Program (FBMP) routes in Ontario (FBMP 2008). Territories range in size from 0.5 to 4.0 ha and are often situated close to streams, vernal pools, or other water features. 1994). Females appear to have lower return rates than males (Walkinshaw 1966; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). Since 1996, studies of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario have been coordinated by the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team (Friesen et al. Due to ease of access and proximity to known sites, survey effort has been concentrated in the extensive public forests in Norfolk County, wooded ravines in Elgin County, and public lands within a few large forest complexes elsewhere in the Carolinian region. Molecular Ecology 11:2065–2081. The latest Tweets from Acadian Flycatcher (@AcadianFcatcher). This estimate is consistent with previous population estimates (Table 3). [accessed 27 October 2008]. The Acadian Flycatcher feeds mostly on insects and insect larvae, with spiders and other arthropods also taken (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). This species does exhibit some degree of flexibility in that it can nest successfully in relatively narrow wooded ravine situations, and uses several different tree and shrub species for nest–support. No Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge is currently available for this species. Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. For 40 years southern flying squirrel wasn't present in the park, but was reintroduced back to the park by the Resource Conversation staff. Photograph (top) of an Acadian Flycatcher at Fontenelle Forest, Sarpy Co 28 May 2017 by Phil Swanson. Most individuals occur in forests more than 40 hectares in size. Is there an observed, inferred, or projected continuing decline. the BEAUTIFUL acadian flycatcher is CURRENTLY an endangered species in ontario. Mean clutch size for Acadian Flycatcher nests in Ontario is 2.9 ± 0.4 (range 1–4, n=104), which is similar to elsewhere (ONRS 2008). Other tyrant flycatchers. The species is threatened by forestry practices, particularly those that target removal of large trees. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA. Habitat in the eastern United States is much more extensive than in Ontario, including large areas of high forest cover in the core part of the species’ breeding range. National Recovery Plan No. Acadian Flycatchers have not been confirmed breeding on federal lands in Ontario. 12 pp. Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05. Rodenhouse, N.L., S.N. References Status historyDesignated Endangered in April 1994. One analysis from Ohio reported apparent annual survival of males of 0.53 ± 0.056 SE, versus females of 0.23 ± 0.064 SE (Rodewald and Shustack 2008). Acadian Flycatcher Recovery Program: ACFL surveys in 2005 at core sites and follow–up stewardship work. Further range contraction occurred in the northeast United States during the 1900s. Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation): Does not meet criterion. Birds of the Cedar Point Biological Station area, Keith and Garden Counties, Nebraska: Seasonal occurrence and breeding data. 706 pp. Acadian Flycatchers are also being reported more widely in atlas projects currently underway in Ohio and Pennsylvania compared to the previous state atlases completed in the 1980s (Ohio BBA II 2008; Pennsylvania BBA 2008). 2008). Acadian Flycatcher — Photo courtesy of Ron Ridout. Their breasts appear paler than most other empids, but can become strongly washed with yellow in the fall. Website: [accessed February 2009]. Factors influencing Acadian Flycatcher nesting succcess in an intensively managed forest landscape. Habitat degradation has occurred, and is occurring, at all scales. Pashley, C.J. 2004. This legislation prohibits the possession or sale of migratory birds and their nests, and activities that are harmful to migratory birds, their eggs, or their nests, except as permitted under the Migratory Bird Regulations. 2009. Distribution and Population |
Ottawa. Several of the other known sites are managed as protected areas by municipalities, conservation authorities, non–profit conservation organizations, or private landowners. The Acadian flycatcher is an olive-green songbird with a long and slightly forked tail, white wing bars, and a yellowish belly. Recovery Team |
Coordinated surveys of known and potential Acadian Flycatcher breeding habitat in southern Ontario were carried out in 1997, 1998, 2002, and 2007 (Heagy et al. Dowell. Kennedy, A. Martell, A. Panjabi, D.N. 2005). 2009). Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) Status in Canada: Endangered. Nevertheless, the survey data can be used to estimate the size of the Canadian population.In the 2007 surveys, 36 Acadian Flycatcher males were found at 25 sites in six counties/regions (Table 2); Heagy and Badzinski 2008). Production note:COSEWIC would like to acknowledgeAudrey Heagy for writing the status report on the Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, in Canada, prepared under contract with Environment Canada, overseen and edited by Jon McCracken, Co–chair, COSEWIC Birds Specialist Subcommittee. The Acadian Flycatcher has been characterized as an area–sensitive species (e.g., Robbins et al. Forest habitats within the Acadian Flycatcher’s restricted breeding range in Canada are generally compromised in terms of their ability to support area–sensitive forest birds. 2006. NatureServe. Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. The Hooded Warbler is listed as Threatened nationally under the Species at Risk Act and Special Concern provincially under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007. we need your help. Allen, M.C., J. Sheehan, Jr., T.L. Wildlife Monographs 103:1–34. Nest predators and brood parasite populations are likely at elevated levels in most forests in the agricultural–dominated landscape of southern Ontario, as in Illinois (Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2006). Collectively, these threats to habitat greatly reduce potential for rescue from adjacent U.S. populations. Males attract females with their unique song and erratic courtship displays, and establish nesting territories. Acadian Flycatcher territories in Ontario are typically in either mature tableland forests or forested ravines (Bisson et al. This small songbird is very similar in appearance to other Empidonax flycatchers and is best distinguished by its distinctive peet–sa song and other characteristic vocalizations. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON. Species at Risk Act (SARA), 2002. In Ohio, riparian sites with high urbanization (and lower seasonal productivity) have higher rates of turnover in occupancy than more rural sites (Rodewald and Shustack 2008). Status report on the Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, in Canada.
Dave Martin, Environmental Consultant; Belmont, Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:532–538. 1989). COSEWIC Reason for Designation: In Canada, this species is restricted to certain types of mature forest in southern Ontario. Extremely similar to several other species, especially Alder and Willow Flycatchers. The Hooded Warbler is listed as Threatened … 1999. The distribution map presented in the most recent Ontario breeding bird atlas is considered representative of the Acadian Flycatcher’s actual distribution in 2001–05 (Martin 2007; see Figure 3). 2007; PIF 2008; Sauer et al. Prior to the 1800’s, the Carolinian area of Ontario would have had abundant suitable habitat for this species. Surveys carried out in 1997 found 34 singing males and yielded an estimate of fewer than 50 pairs. Assuming that half of the eight males detected only once were migrants or transients and that no birds were missed at any of the survey sites, then the minimum number of territorial breeding males was 32. 2004; Blancher et al. COSEWIC assessed this species as Endangered in November 2000. Some records occur in adjacent parts of the Lake Simcoe–Rideau ecoregion (Figure 3). The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal–Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. The Acadian Flycatcher is often used as a focal species for forest bird research in eastern North America because it is considered relatively easy to study, and is an indicator of forest habitat conditions at a range of scales. Acadian Flycatcher -- Photo courtesy of Ron Ridout. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2010.Catalogue CW69–14/5–2010E–PDFISBN 978–1–100–15955–3. In Canada, the breeding range of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) is limited to southern Ontario. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON. 1994; Martin 2007). The forests within the Canadian breeding range of this species are highly fragmented, with two–thirds of all forest patches being less than 5 ha, and with only 431 patches being over 100 ha in size (Flaxman 2004). Name Recovery Strategy for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution): Meets Endangered D1; population size (60–180 adults) is <250 mature individuals. Rates increase with increasing urbanization (Rodewald and Shustack 2008; Rodewald 2009). Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, nest site characteristics at the northern edge of its range.. Allnut, T. Brooks, D.K. Interim Report for Recovery Team Meeting, 2 November 2004. Cadman. McCracken et al. Appearance and population trend. 164 pp. Projected or suspected percent change in total number of, Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected percent change in total number of mature individuals over any 10 years, or 3 generations period, over a time period including both the. A List of Municipalities with Bylaws, Ontario Woodlot Assocation. 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