A case study of FD and BN phytoplasma variability in Croatia: multigene sequence analysis approach. First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' related strain associated with a potato reddening disease in Greece. Ca. Plant Disease. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S217-S218. First report on molecular detection of a stolbur phytoplasma (Group16SrXII-A) associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) in India. P. solani’-related strains (Quaglino et al., 2013). Preliminary identification of phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Syria. Journal of Phytopathology. In: Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, eds. Phytoplasma solani’ strains), 49 vmp1/stamp sequence variants were grouped in five vmp1/stamp clusters. Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas associated with potato purple top disease in Iran. In: Phytoma-Espana, 68 40-44. There is conflicting evidence for its transmission in potato tubers (Rich, 1983; Slack, 2001; Paltrinieri and Bertaccini, 2007). Özdemİr N, Saygİlİ H, Sahİn F, Karsavuran Y, Bayrak O F, Oral B, 2009. P. solani’ are low vigour, leaf yellowing, dried canopy, and in some cases death. Stolbur phytoplasma was also spread by vegetative propagation through lavender and lavandin nurseries. Phytoplasma solani’ strain populations. 93 (8), 789-796. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-8-0789, Gao Ying, Qiu PingPing, Liu WenHao, Su WenMin, Gai ShuPeng, Liang YuanCun, Zhu XiaoPing, 2013. Identification and characterization of new 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' strains associated with bois noir disease in Vitis vinifera L. cultivars showing a range of symptom severity in Georgia, the Caucasus region. Further studies showed that BN and VK were the same disease (Belli et al., 2010). First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with potato stolbur disease in Montenegro. ‘Ca. Similarly, carbohydrate metabolism in potatoes may also be affected, which is a likely cause of quality losses in processed potato products like crisps and French fries. Phytoplasma solani’ have been identified by molecular characterization, mainly based on tufB, secY, vmp1 and stamp sequencing (Fabre et al., 2011; Fialova et al., 2009; Murolo and Romanazzi, 2015; Quaglino et al., 2016); distribution of these genotypes among the different host plants seems to be specific (Kosovac et al., 2016; Kosovac et al., 2019). Crop Protection, 28(10), 898-904. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2009.05.008, Olivier, C. Y., Lowery, D. T., Stobbs, L. W., 2009. In vine-growing areas where the population density of these vectors is low within the vineyard, the occurrence of bois noir implies the existence of alternative vectors. Phytoplasma solani’ could potentially have negative effects on human health, in particular that of farmers. Striking diversity of vmp1, a variable gene encoding a putative membrane protein of the stolbur phytoplasma. Compte Rendu de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, 272: 2082-2085. Gugerli, P., Cazelles, O., Genini, M., Emery, S., Colombi, L., 2002. First report of grapevine Bois noir in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Diversity of grapevine yellows in Germany. First report of maize redness disease in Hungary. EPPO Reporting Service, No. Acs, Z., Jovic, J., Ember, I., Cvrkovic, T., Nagy, Z., Talaber, C., Gergely, L., Toševski, I., Kölber, M., 2011. Three species of the ‘Ca. A new TaqMan method for the identification of phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows by real-time PCR assay. Agronomie. First report of Candidatus phytoplasma solani associated with potato plants in Greece. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Boudon-Padieu, E., Cousin, M. T., 1999. 98 (8), 1152. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-14-0085-PDN, Plavec J, Križanac I, Budinšćak Ž, Škorić D, Musić M Š, 2015. In: Working Groups of COST Action FA0807: Integrated management of phytoplasma epidemics in different crop systems, Sitges, Spain, 1-2 February 2010, 5. Plant Disease. 2014). Corn with symptoms of reddening: new host of stolbur phytoplasma. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 17(1/2), 1-34. Lee IngMing, Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E., Bartoszyk, I. M., 1998. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Adamovic D, Djalovic I, Mitrovic P, Kojic S, Pivic R, Josic D, 2014a. Plant Disease, 86(6), 697. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.697A, Chuche, J., Danet, J. L., Salar, P., Foissac, X., Thiéry, D., 2016. Stolbur phytoplasma infection of kale crops (Brassica oleracea var. 148 (4), 239-242. Daire, X., Clair, D., Larrue, J., Boudon-Padieu, E., Caudwell, A., 1993. Unlike the situation with most crop plants, H. obsoletus can complete its life cycle on lavender; thus, disease propagation is epidemic and lavender fields can be destroyed within 4–5 years in south-eastern France (Foissac et al., 2013). Plant Disease. DOI:10.1007/s10340-017-0885-5. First report of Candidatus phytoplasma solani on blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) in Bulgaria. A major improvement in the diagnosis and specific identification of phytoplasmas was achieved when polymerase chain reaction techniques became available. Plant Disease. Candidatus Phytoplasma solani Firrao et al. Phytoplasmas are cell-wall-less plant pathogenic bacteria of the class Mollicutes, with a small genome size which ranges from 530 to 1350 kilobases (Marcone, 2014). 156 (11/12), 687-690. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119879241/HTMLSTART DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01416.x, Sabaté J, Laviña A, Batlle A, 2014. As the epidemiological cycle of GY complex diseases, associated with distinct phytoplasmas, is different and determines specific management strategies, it is crucial to identify the phytoplasmas infecting plants affected by GY. 92 (4), 654. 130 (3), 367-377. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265 DOI:10.1007/s10658-011-9759-5. The dark brown discoloration that occurs during frying is a non-enzymatic reaction caused by an interaction between free aldehyde groups of reducing hexoses like glucose and fructose and free amino groups of amino acids and tuber proteins during high temperature processing. Canadian Entomologist, 141(5), 425-462. http://article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/RPAS/rpv?hm=HInit&calyLang=eng&journal=ent&volume=141&afpf=n08-CPA02.pdf doi: 10.4039/n08-CPA02. Pathways of transmission and propagation are determined by the interaction between the host plants and the insect vectors. Bulletin of Insectology. Invasion biology and host specificity of the grapevine yellows disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus in Europe. Phytoplasma australiense’. First report of a "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" related strain associated with a disease of Datura stramonium in Greece. Survey and molecular detection of phytoplasmas associated with potato in Romania and southern Russia. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Trkulja, V., Adamovic, D., Ðalovic, I., Mitrovic, P., Kovacic-Jošic, D., Lukac, Z., Komic, J., 2016. Allerdings handelt es sich bei Kartoffeln um andere Phytoplasmen (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani) und um andere Zikaden als in der Rübe. Tomato stolbur virus: a new record. Tomato Diseases: Identification, Biology and Control - A Colour Handbook, 2nd Ed. Due to its complex ecology and epidemiological cycle, and its high capability to adapt to different agro-ecosystems, the risk of introduction of ‘Ca. 34 (4), 235-236. Lindner, K., Haase, N. U., Roman, M., Seemüller, E., 2011. Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in pomegranate trees with yellows symptoms. 142 (4), 759-770. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 DOI:10.1007/s10658-015-0649-0. Starý, M., Válová, P., Šafárová, D., Lauterer, P., Ackermann, P., Navrátil, M., 2013. Marcone, C., Ragozzino, A., Seemüller, E., 1997. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. Journal of Plant Pathology. 158 (2), 100-104. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01586.x, Ember I, Acs Z, Munyaneza J E, Crosslin J M, Kolber M, 2011. The stolbur phytoplasma antigenic membrane protein gene stamp is submitted to diversifying positive selection. P. solani'-associated diseases can have negative effects. Pap, S. M., Varga, J. G., Cervenski, J., Stepanovic, J., Rekanovic, E., Stepanovic, M., Duduk, B., 2018. Annals of Applied Biology, 147(2), 191-201. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.00030.x, Gao Ying, Qiu PingPing, Liu WenHao, Su WenMin, Gai ShuPeng, Liang YuanCun, Zhu XiaoPing, 2013. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' infection changes the Fe distribution in tomato leaves, affects the photosynthetic machinery and perturbs the orchestration of root-mediated transport processes by compromising shoot-to-root communication. B., Stackebrandt, E., 1994. (El "stolbur" del tomate: detección en España mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR).). http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/. For example, recent studies reported (i) the direct epidemiological role of Vitex agnus-castus in the  Hyalesthes obsoletus-mediated transmission of ‘Ca. Its symptoms were indistinguishable from those of Flavescence dorée (FD) but, because it was spreading more slowly, it was considered a non-epidemic form of FD. Plant Disease, 92(4), 654. Bulletin of Insectology. Journal of Phytopathology. Based on unique molecular and biological features, they have been classified into 40 species within the provisional genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ (International Research Programme for Comparative Mycoplasmology Phytoplasma\Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group, 2004; Marcone, 2014); moreover, taxonomic groupings have been delimited according to the similarity coefficients derived from the comparison of collective restriction profiles of the 16S rRNA gene sequence digested with a selected pool of endonucleases (Lee et al., 1998; Wei et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2009). Phytoplasma solani’, which is only incidentally transmitted by the vector Hyalesthes obsoletus from other host plants to the crop during its feeding probing (Weintraub and Beanland, 2006). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(12), 1763-1788. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=46299 doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.512191. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. 156 (1), 8-14. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01311.x, Josic D, Pavlovic S, Pivic R, Kuzmanovic S, Stojanovic S, Popovic T, Starovic M, 2012. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. > 10°C, Cold average temp. About 19 plant species belonging to 10 different families are known to harbour both nymphs and adults of H. obsoletus, but adults can be observed on more species (Riolo et al., 2012). Phytoplasma solani’ is listed as a harmful organism necessitating restrictions on the import of plants in the family Solanaceae (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2014). https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01507-18, Seruga, M., Perica, M. C., Škoric, D., Kozina, B., Miroševic, N., Šaric, A., Bertaccini, A., Krajacic, M., 2000. ‘Ca. 60 (2), 155-156. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Mitrović M, Cvrković T, Jović J, Krstić O, Jakovljević M, Kosovac A, Toševski I, 2015. Phytoplasma solani’ is related to the dispersal of its vectors and to the trade in cultivated host plants (e.g. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(10), 2368-2377. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.65868-0, Weintraub, P. G., Beanland, L., 2006. Proteomes (3) Format. In: Third European Bois Noir Workshop, Barcelona, Spain, 20-21 March 2013 [Third European Bois Noir Workshop, Barcelona, Spain, 20-21 March 2013], [ed. Myrta, A., Ermacora, P., Stamo, B., Osler, R., 2003. Occurrence and distribution of bois noir phytoplasma in Turkey. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Journal of Phytopathology, 158(2), 105-110. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01585.x, Zwolinska, A., Krawczyk, K., Pospieszny, H., 2012. 7 (5), 310-313. Plant Disease. Journal of Phytopathology. Chardonnay with buds from either healthy, infected or symptomless vines chosen at random in a vineyard with a low disease incidence. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ related strain associated with Babylon willow witches’ broom in central provinces of Iran. (Jaunisses à phytoplasmes de la vigne, diagnostic, épidémiologie, et développement des recherches.). A yellows disease system with differing principal host plants for the obligatory pathogen and its vector. [Abstract], Canik D, Topkaya X, Bayram S, Soylemezoglu G, Ertunc F, 2011. Grapevine Bois noir (BN) is caused by ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (‘ Ca. Potato Research, 13(2), 146-150. doi: 10.1007/BF02355925, Zirak, L., Bahar, M., Ahoonmanesh, A., 2010. 2013) formerly known as Stolbur phytoplasma (taxonomic group 16SrXII-A) affects a wide range of wild and cultivated plants including grapevines, where it induces Bois noir (BN), a disease widespread in … Symptoms of phytoplasma-infected tomato plants generally appear during summer. Contribution to the study of grapevine yellows in the world: investigation by ELISA using flavescence dorée-specific antibodies. Identification of the phytoplasma associated with bois noir of grapevine in Spain. Yellow decline of Lavandula hybrida Rev and L. vera DC. Növényvédelem. Plant Disease, 98(6):839-840. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Pelletier, C., Salar, P., Gillet, J., Cloquemin, G., Very, P., Foissac, X., Malembic-Maher, S., 2009. In summary, the distinct molecular characteristics and unique vectorship support recognition of ‘Ca. Horticultural Science, 40(2), 83-87. http://agriculturejournals.cz/web/hortsci.htm. Bulletin of Insectology. Trials conducted to control nettle growth with glyphosate or other herbicides significantly reduced the density of emerging adult vectors. First report of stolbur phytoplasma affecting Cichorium intybus in Serbia. Impact of stolbur phytoplasmas on potato tuber texture and sugar content of selected potato cultivars. 32 (3), 159-163. Phytoplasmen sind zellwandfreie Bakterien, die als obligate Parasiten im pflanzlichen Phloem wachsen. ‘Ca. Identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with tree peony yellows disease in China. The incidence of stolbur disease and associated yield losses in vegetable crops in South Moravia (Czech Republic). (Polymorphisme des microorganismes de type mycoplasme rencontrés dans les tubes criblés de lavandins “Abrial” atteints de “Dépérissement jaune). Wallingford, UK: CABI. Based on such evidence, it should be interesting to trace the movements of ‘Ca. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/download/348/214, Balakishiyeva G, Mammadov A, Foissac X, Huseynova I, Aliyev J, 2016. Plant Disease. Lavender is an exception among crop plants in that H. obsoletus can complete its life cycle on it and acquire the pathogen from it; microsatellite analysis indicates that there are lavender-specific strains (Séméty et al., 2018). The disease can cause strong yield reductions (40%-90%) and economic losses. First report of stolbur phytoplasma infecting celery in Serbia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. For example, based on RsaI-RFLP analyses of vmp1 gene amplicons, ‘Ca. According to IRPCM guidelines (International Research Programme for Comparative Mycoplasmology Phytoplasma\Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group, 2004), phytoplasmas sharing >97.5% 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence similarity can be described as separate species if they are clearly distinguished by evident molecular diversity and ecological niche. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press. Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. Most adverse effects associated with ‘Ca. Marchi, G., Cinelli, T., Rizzo, D., Goti, L. S., Bartola, M. della, Luvisi, A., Panattoni, A., Materazzi, A., 2015. Hodgetts J, Flint LJ, Daly M, Harju VA, Skelton AL, Fox A, 2015. Diversity among mycoplasma-like organisms inducing grapevine yellows in France. Acta Horticulturae. In: Compte Rendu de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, 272 2082-2085. Polymorphisme des microorganismes de type mycoplasme rencontrés dans les tubes criblés de lavandins “Abrial” atteints de “Dépérissement jaune”. Geographic spread of the 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' belonging to 16SrXII-A ribosomal subgroup has been reported over the past decade in different crops in Serbia (Cvrković et al. 99 (4), 551. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1052-PDN, Moraki K N, Maliogka V I, Katis N I, 2014a. Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas associated with peach diseases in Iran. Plant Disease, 99(2):283. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Josic D, Starovic M, Stojanovic S, Popovic T, Dolovac N, Zdravkovic J, Pavlovic S, 2013. Based on phylogenetic analysis of concatenated nucleotide sequences of the genes vmp1 and stamp (available for 76 ‘Ca. Perennial plants are the main reservoirs of the phytoplasma and hosts of the vectors (Weintraub and Beanland, 2006), but annual plants (both wild and cultivated) could play a role in the diffusion of the phytoplasma. The disease was associated with the presence of stolbur phytoplasma, transmitted by H. obsoletus. Plant Disease, 98(8), 1151. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-14-0026-PDN, Quaglino, F., Murolo, S., Zhao, Y., Casati, P., Durante, G., Wei, W., Bianco, P. A., Romanazzi, G., Davis, R. E., 2017. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. Solanum malacoxylon, a new natural host of Stolbur phytoplasma. Vitis, 12(3), 222-225. Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma diseases: a severe threat to agriculture. The availability in the NCBI database of the 16S rRNA gene sequences allowed the development of universal PCR assays for the detection of all known phytoplasmas and of phytoplasma-specific PCR protocols for the targeted identification of the pathogens associated with different diseases, including ‘Ca. Occurrence and distribution of bois noir phytoplasma in Turkey. Phytoplasma solani’ in particular, more than 100 plant species, belonging to 40 different families and 22 orders, have been described as being infected by it; they include many wild plants, ornamental plants and major and minor crops. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 54(3), 504-515. http://www.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/16239/16652, Marcone, C., 2014. Plant Disease, 100(8):1775. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Radonjic, S., Hrncic, S., Jovic, J., Cvrkovic, T., Krstic, O., Krnjajic, S., Toševski, I., 2009. 100 (12), 2522. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0781-PDN. Identification of stolbur-related phytoplasmas in grapevine showing decline symptoms in Iran. Molecular analyses, based on PCR amplification and further nucleotide sequence characterization carried out through RFLP profile comparison and/or sequence identity calculation, allow specific identification of 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani’, which is only incidentally transmitted by H. obsoletus from other host plants to the crop during its feeding probing (Weintraub and Beanland 2006), although recent research indicates that H. obsoletus can compete its life cycle on lavender (Séméty et al., 2018). Detection of Flavescence dorée and Bois noir phytoplasmas, Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3 and Grapevine virus A from the same crude extract by reverse transcription-RealTime Taqman assays. Phytoplasma solani’ is transmitted by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Homoptera: Cixiide), a polyphagous vector living preferentially on nettle (Urtica dioica L.), bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.), and chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus L.) in and/or around agrosystems (Langer and Maixner, 2004; Sharon et al., 2015). (Sintomi di " virescenza ipertrofica " (big bud) del pomodoro nei pressi di Roma. Plant Pathology, 64(4), 785-791. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12316/full. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 142(3), 591-601. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-015-0637-4, Quaglino, F., Maghradze, D., Casati, P., Chkhaidze, N., Lobjanidze, M., Ravasio, A., Passera, A., Venturini, G., Failla, O., Bianco, P. A., 2016. It is thought likely that it has always been present, at least in its European range, but has only been noticed in recent years. 88 (8), 906. http://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.906A. P. solani’ is not transmitted from infected female planthoppers to their progeny (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2014). In: Plant Pathology Journal, 29 (4) 465-470. Moreover, 'Ca. Unlike their phylogenetically related species from the genus Mycoplasma, which are human and animal pathogens, phytoplasmas are plant pathogens transmitted by phloem-feeding insects. Grapevine yellows induced by phytoplasmas. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. Journal of Plant Pathology. Occurrence and molecular characterization of stolbur phytoplasma infecting grapevine in South Moravia (Czech Republic). First report on natural infection of Paeonia tenuifolia by 'Candidatus phytoplasma solani' in Serbia. Plant Disease, 90(6), 831. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-0831A, Trkulja, N., Ivanovic, Ž., Dolovac, E. P., Dolovac, N., Živkovic, S., Jovic, J., Mitrovic, M., 2011. New Disease Reports. Annals of Applied Biology, 169(2), 214-223. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348 doi: 10.1111/aab.12291, Chung N, Jeong Ml, Choi SK, Joa JH, Choi KS, Choi IM, 2013. Investigation on 'bois noir' epidemiology in north-eastern Italian vineyards through a multidisciplinary approach. However, the control strategies used to manage the 'Ca. Environmental factors play a role in both the intensity and incidence of the disease, with more severe disease being associated with early-planted fields and hot, dry summers (Jovic et al., 2009). Osler, R., Vindimian, M. E., Filippi, M., Carraro, L., Refatti, E., 1997. The complexity of the epidemiological cycle of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma solani’. Journal of Phytopathology. scolymus (globe artichoke), Echium vulgare ((common) viper's-bugloss), Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree), Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush), Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue), Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose), Silene latifolia subsp. Candidatus . (Identificacion del fitoplasma asociado al Bois Noir de la vina en Espana). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 126(3), 217-227. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/eea doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00655.x, Josic D, Starovic M, Kojic S, Pivic R, Stanojkovic-Sebic A, Zdravkovic M, Pavlovic S, 2015. Batlle A, Larrue J, Clair D, Daire X, Boudon-Padieu E, Lavina A, 1995. Rich, A. E., 1983. Plant Disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 165(2), 199-221. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348 doi: 10.1111/aab.12151. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 84(24), e01507-18. Plant Disease, 97(3):420. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Josic, D., Pavlovic, S., Pivic, R., Kuzmanovic, S., Stojanovic, S., Popovic, T., Starovic, M., 2012. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. 82 (1), 5-20. First report of ', Yang RuiHuan, Wang GuiWei, Wang Sai, Zhang Di, Wei LiangZhu, Chen HaiMin, Li Ou, Hu XiuFang, 2016. Yellow wilt of lavandin; new mycoplasma disease. Development of a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay for the distinction of two major subtypes of the grapevine yellows phytoplasma Bois noir. Paltrinieri, S., Bertaccini, A., 2007. Results of nested-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the phytoplasma belongs to the ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma solani’ (16SrXII) taxonomic group. 164 (11/12), 882-889. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434, Zamharir M G, 2018. Stolbur detection in Spain by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Stolbur detection in Spain by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences of 16S rRNA, tuf, sec Y and vmp 1 genes amplified from LN‐1 phytoplasma shared the closest homologies of 99%, 100%, 99% and 98% with those of the reference strain Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (subgroup 16SrXII‐A), respectively. The use of herbicides and/or insecticides to control reservoir hosts or vectors of ‘Ca. Maixner, M., Rüdel, M., Daire, X., Boudon-Padieu, E., 1995. In parallel, a yellows-type disease of grapevine, named "bois noir" (BN) was first reported in 1961 in vineyards of north-eastern France. The cluster vmp1/stamp-4 included strains (type tuf-A) was associated with the nettle-related biological cycle, while the other four clusters (vmp1/stamp-1, -2, -3, -5) included strains (type tuf-B) associated with the bindweed-related biological cycle (Quaglino et al., 2016). Several weeds, such as Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris, host 'Ca. In the European Union it is listed as a harmful organism necessitating restrictions on the import of plants in the family Solanaceae. Moraki KN, Maligka VI, Katis NI, 2014. Phytoplasma solani’ on grapevine is the loss of production due to berry shrivel, the economic impact of the disease, especially on susceptible varieties, is significant. Fránová, J., Navrátil, M., Jakešová, H., 2009. Phytoplasma detection in corn with reddening in Italy. P. convolvuli' associated with grapevine bois noir and bindweed yellows, respectively, in Georgia. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(5):906-911. http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/PDF/pdf2012/9Feb/Pavlovic%20et%20al.pdf, Pavlovic, S., Starovic, M., Stojanovic, S., Aleksic, G., Kojic, S., Zdravkovic, M., Josic, D., 2014a. Cousin MT, Moreau JP, Kartha KK, Staron T, Faivre-Amiot A, 1971. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 40(3), 311-318. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/issues/tar-16-40-3/tar-40-3-2-1506-58.pdf, Angelini, E., Bianchi, G. L., Filippin, L., Morassutti, C., Borgo, M., 2007. First report of Candidatus phytoplasma solani associated with potato plants in Greece. Phytoplasmas as a group have been associated with several hundred diseases affecting economically important crops, such as ornamentals, vegetables, fruit trees and grapevines (Bertaccini et al., 2014). Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(S4), S4.115. Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Candidatus phytoplasma solani. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S239-S240. Maladie du bois noir de la vigne en Suisse romande et au Tessin (Black wood disease of grapes in French-speaking Switzerland and Ticino). The more recent multilocus sequence analyses of ribosomal (rplV and rpsC) and extra-ribosomal genes (secY, map, uvrB, degV, and tuf) revealed a high level of genetic heterogeneity among flavescence dorée (FD) and bois noir (BN) phytoplasmas (Langer and Maixner, 2004). Plant Disease, 102(5), 1026. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-02-17-0197-pdn, Pavlovic S, Josic D, Starovic M, Stojanovic S, Aleksic G, Stojsin V, Radanovic D, 2012. Crepis foetida L. - new host plant of Cixiid planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret 1865 (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), vector of stolbur phytoplasma. Forest Pathology. DOI:10.1007/s10327-019-00889-z. Tomato stolbur virus: a new record. P. solani’ strains based on mutations at nucleotide positions 43, 469, 488, 747, 875, 971, and 1219 from the annealing site of the primer F2n (Quaglino et al., 2017). P. solani’ are leaf reddening, abnormal ear development, and reduction of seed size. In: Working Groups of COST Action FA0807: Integrated management of phytoplasma epidemics in different crop systems, Sitges, Spain, 1-2 February 2010. p 5. Phytoma-Espana, 68: 40-44, Belli, G., Bianco, P. A., Conti, M., 2010. Potato stolbur is a serious disease in South Eastern Europe, Russia and the Mediterranean areas (Eroglu et al., 2010). Phytoplasma solani’ to new regions is related to the dispersal of its vectors and to the trade in cultivated host plants (e.g., symptomless seedlings). First report of 16SrXII-A subgroup phytoplasma (stolbur) associated with reddening of Oenothera biennis in Serbia. First report of stolbur phytoplasma associated with Anethum graveolens in Serbia. Plant Disease. (Ispitivanje stolbura Solanacea i nacin suzbijanja). Nota preliminare). Experimental and molecular evidence of Reptalus panzeri as a natural vector of bois noir. Taxonomy - Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (SPECIES) ))) Map to UniProtKB (1,247) Unreviewed (1,247) TrEMBL. Phytoplasma solani’ strains are associated with bois noir disease of grapevine, with stolbur disease in wild and cultivated herbaceous and woody plants, and with yellowing, reddening, decline, dwarfism, leaf malformation and degeneration diseases of other plants. Molecular identification and diversity of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with red-leaf disease of Salvia miltiorrhiza in China. Molecular study of phytoplasmas associated with pistachio yellows in Iran. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 1053-1057, Eroglu, S., Ozbek, H., Sahin, F., 2010. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. P. solani’, a strain should (i) share >99% sequence similarity with a minimum of 1.2kb (fragment F2n/R2) within the 16S rRNA gene of the reference strain STOL; (ii) contain the identical STOL-unique 16S rDNA signature sequence (5’-ATTTTTAAAAGACCTAGCAATAGGTATGCTTAG-3’, nt 189..221); and (iii) contain both distinguishing sequence blocks (DSBs) sequences [DSB1 (5’-ATGGTGGAAAAACCATTATGACGGTACCT-3’, nt 452..480) and DSB2 (5’-GCAACGCTCAACGTTGTGATGCTATA-3’, nt 602..627)] noted for the reference strain STOL, with a tolerance of a single nucleotide difference in no more than one of the sequences. Compendium record. Candidatus Phytoplasma solani; grapevine yellows symptoms on Vitis vinifera. Plant Disease, 98(6):841. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Alfaro-Fernández, A., Cebrián, M. del C., Villaescusa, F. J., Font-San-Ambrosio, M. I., 2011. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(3), 603. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3179/1851, Alp, S., Usta, M., Sipahioglu, H. M., Güller, A., 2016. First report of grapevine 'bois noir' in Azerbaijan. Identificacion del fitoplasma asociado al Bois Noir de la vina en Espana (Identification of the phytoplasma associated with bois noir of grapevine in Spain). The most widespread phytoplasmas, vectors and measures for disease control in Slovenia. Cultivated and wild plantain (Plantago major) as a host of Stolbur phytoplasma in Serbia. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Identification of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ Associated with Tree Peony Yellows Disease in China. Hyalesthes obsoletus in Serbia and its role in the epidemiology of corn reddening. Riedle-Bauer, M., Sára, A., Regner, F., 2008. The main symptoms in lavender infected by ‘Ca. Occurrence of phytoplasmas related to stolbur and to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum' in woody host plants in China. 95 (12), 1581. 53 (3), 491-501. http://www.fupress.com/pm/, Kovačević M, Ðurić Z, Jović J, Perković G, Lolić B, Hrnčić S, Toševski I, Delić D, 2014. Australasian Plant Pathology, 46(1), 31-34. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-016-0461-0 doi: 10.1007/s13313-016-0461-0, Quaglino, F., Zhao Yan, Casati, P., Bulgari, D., Bianco, P. A., Wei Wei, Davis, R. E., 2013. Canik D, Topkaya X, Bayram S, Soylemezoglu G, Ertunc F, 2011. Karimi M, Contaldo N, Mahmoudi B, Duduk B, Bertaccini A, 2009. The most widespread phytoplasmas, vectors and measures for disease control in Slovenia. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, Rebe und Wein, Obstbau und Früchteverwertung. Contribution to the study of grapevine yellows in the world: investigation by ELISA using flavescence dorée-specific antibodies. Symptoms of lavender decline are yellowing and either standing up or rolling down of the leaves, and reduction and abortion of inflorescences (Boudon-Padieu and Cousin 1999). EPPO, 2020. Virus diseases of grapevine in Israel. Minor cultures as hosts for vectors of extensive crop diseases: does Salvia sclarea act as a pathogen and vector reservoir for lavender decline? In almost all varieties of Vitis vinifera L., 'Ca. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows disease in Chile. Journal of Plant Pathology, 86(3), 257-261. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54(4), 1243-1255. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.02854-0, Iriti, M., Quaglino, F., Maffi, D., Casati, P., Bianco, P. A., Faoro, F., 2008. Phytoplasmas are cell-wall-less plant pathogenic bacteria of the class Mollicutes with a small genome size, which ranges from 530 to 1350 kilobases (Marcone, 2014). First report of stolbur phytoplasma associated with maize redness disease of maize in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease. Voncina, D., Cvjetkovic, B., 2007. Phytoplasma’. Name: "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" Quaglino et al. Gene, 472(1/2), 37-41. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T39-51C4RSN-1&_user=10&_coverDate=02%2F01%2F2011&_rdoc=6&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234941%232011%23995279998%232846776%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4941&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=8&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=fa183257cc8705a299631eb2d24c0b8c&searchtype=a doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2010.10.012, Fialová, R., Válová, P., Balakishiyeva, G., Danet, J. L., Šafárová, D., Foissac, X., Navrátil, M., 2009. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 153(1), 183-195. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10658-018-1553-1, Kosovac, A., Radonjic, S., Hrncic, S., Krstic, O., Toševski, I., Jovic, J., 2016. Minucci, C., Boccardo, G., 1997. Recent studies have demonstrated that phytoplasmas affect carbohydrate production in infected grapevines. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. First report on natural infection of Paeonia tenuifolia by 'Candidatus phytoplasma solani' in Serbia. The biological complexity of ‘Ca. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 59(10), 2582-2593. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.010249-0, Zimmerman-Gries, S., 1970. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 19(6), 140-141. Lavender decline compromises French lavender production, and preliminary data have suggested the involvement of "CandidatusPhytoplasma solani" in the etiology of the disease. 21 (3), 417-423. DOI:10.1111/jph.12401, Genov N, Mitrović J, Genov M, Duduk B, 2014. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' related strain associated with Babylon willow witches' broom in central provinces of Iran. "Ca. 79 (3), 211-217. Plant Disease. Molecular detection and identification of group 16SrI and 16SrXII phytoplasmas associated with diseased potatoes in Russia. Bois noir, a disease of the grapevine yellows complex, is associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' and transmitted to grapevines in open fields by the cixiids Hyalesthes obsoletus and Reptalus panzeri. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Bulletin of Insectology, 60(2), 379-380. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/. Incidence of Bois Noir phytoplasma in different viticulture regions of Spain and Stolbur isolates distribution in plants and vectors. Journal of Plant Pathology, 87(2), 101-107. First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' isolate affecting Sophora alopecuroides in Iran. Phytoplasma solani’ control. 'Stolbur'-a new Potato disease in Israel. EFSA Journal, 12(12), 3924. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3924.pdf, Ember, I., Acs, Z., Munyaneza, J. E., Crosslin, J. M., Kolber, M., 2011. (2009) report that in severe epidemics, ‘Ca. In the case of bois noir, other strategies for reducing ‘Ca. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(2), 447. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2836, Maixner M, 2011. Nanobiotransducer for detecting flavescence dorée phytoplasma. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1313, Duduk B, Tian JanBao, Contaldo N, Fan XinPing, Paltrinieri S, Chen QiuFang, Zhao QiFeng, Bertaccini A, 2010. 75 (9), 2951-2957. http://aem.asm.org DOI:10.1128/AEM.02613-08, Contaldo N, Soufi Z, Bertaccini A, 2011. Acta Horticulturae, (No.808), 255-261. http://www.actahort.org. Background ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ is endemic in Europe and infects a wide range of weeds and cultivated plants. Anaceratagallia ribauti has been reported as a vector in Austria (Riedle-Bauer et al., 2008). Phytoplasma solani’ is not thought to be transmitted in the true seed of any of its hosts, but it can be transmitted by vegetative propagation of infected host plants (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2014). Multiple gene analyses identify distinct "bois noir" phytoplasma genotypes in the Republic of Macedonia. Phytoplasma solani’-associated diseases has stimulated research on molecular markers of genetic diversity. Plant Disease. 160 (7/8), 317-323. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2012.01903.x, Fabio Quaglino, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Identification of new -J and -K 16SrXII subgroups and distinct single nucleotide polymorphism genetic lineages among 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' strains associated with bois noir in Central Italy. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. As in other phytoplasma diseases, symptoms may be located only on some branches or affect the whole plant. In the European Union it is listed as a harmful organism necessitating restrictions on the import of plants in the family Solanaceae (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2014). P. convolvuli' associated with grapevine bois noir and bindweed yellows, respectively, in Georgia. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Vitis, 42(3), 151-157. Role of plant-specialized Hyalesthes obsoletus associated with Convolvulus arvensis and Crepis foetida in the transmission of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani'-inflicted Bois noir disease of grapevine in Serbia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, BACKGROUND: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' is endemic in Europe and infects a wide range of weeds and cultivated plants. As the main symptom caused by ‘Ca. Diseases associated with ‘Ca. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Striking diversity of vmp1, a variable gene encoding a putative membrane protein of the stolbur phytoplasma. ‘Ca. Transmission of a stolbur phytoplasma by the agalliinae leafhopper Anaceratagallia ribauti (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae). Automated RFLP pattern comparison and similarity coefficient calculation for rapid delineation of new and distinct phytoplasma 16Sr subgroup lineages. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Trkulja V, Adamović D, Ðalović I, Mitrović P, Kovačić-Jošić D, Lukač Z, Komić J, 2016. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 139(1), 185-193. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0378-9, Sakalieva, D., Paltrinieri, S., Calari, A., Bertaccini, A., 2007. 56-57. Petria, 21: 17-32. A yellows-type disease, named "stolbur", was found several decades ago affecting various plants in the Solanaceae family (mainly potato and tomato) in southern and eastern Europe (transmitted by the cixiid planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus): on pepper in southern Russia (Sukhov and Vovk, 1946) and Yugoslavia (Panjan, 1950), and on tomatoes in Italy (Ciccarone, 1951) and France (Cousin et al., 1968). Etudes cytologiques et ultrastructurales. Adult H. obsoletus can feed on grapevines occasionally and so transmit the pathogen, but do not do so often enough to be likely to pick it up from the plant; grapevines and other crops are not a suitable food source for nymphs, which acquire the pathogen when they feed over the winter on the roots of a limited number of wild host species (including nettles, bindweed and Vitex agnus-castus). Diseases caused include bois noir in grapevines, stolbur in tomatoes, potatoes and other wild and cultivated plants, maize redness, lavender decline, and yellowing, reddening, decline, dwarfism, leaf malformation and degeneration diseases of other plants. Genetic diversity in the stolbur phytoplasma group. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Phytoplasma solani’ in the Mediterranean area (Murolo and Romanazzi, 2015). Therefore, the level of reducing sugars is a critical parameter for crisp production as crisps may become dark at high concentrations of reducing sugars during the frying process (Lindner et al., 2011). Hodgetts J, Flint L J, Daly M, Harju V A, Skelton A L, Fox A, 2015. Wei Wei, Lee IngMing, Davis, R. E., Suo XiaoBing, Zhao Yan, 2008. "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" is vectored by numerous planthoppers in the Cixiid and Cicadellid families (See CPHST Pest Datasheet for a complete listing).There is a wide range of preferred hosts among these vectors, therefore, transmission between plant hosts varies greatly depending on the vector. Synonyms . Up to now, three main natural ecologies have been described: (1) the host system bindweed - H. obsoletus - crop, related to type tuf-b strains; (2) the host system nettle - H. obsoletus - crop, related to type tuf-a; and (3) the host system Calystegia sepium - H. obsoletus - crop, related to type tuf-c (Langer and Maixner, 2004). 6 (2), 284-288. http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2012/16Jan/Josic%20et%20al.htm, Josic D, Starović M, Kojic S, Pivic R, Stanojkovic-Sebic A, Zdravkovic M, Pavlovic S, 2015. Vončina D, Cvjetković B, 2007. Molecular biology and pathogenicity of phytoplasmas. Molecular identification of stolbur phytoplasma associated with red clover dwarf disease symptoms. In order to evaluate the epidemiological role of "CaPhytoplasma solani," a 3-year survey was conducted in southeastern France. 98 (8), 1151. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-14-0026-PDN, Quaglino F, Zhao Yan, Casati P, Bulgari D, Bianco P A, Wei Wei, Davis R E, 2013. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' in pepper and celery in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phytoplasmas are cell-wall-less plant pathogenic bacteria of the class Mollicutes, which inhabit the phloem sieve tubes of plants and have been associated with several hundred diseases affecting economically important crops. Identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (16Sr XII-A) infecting strawberry plants in the United Kingdom. ‘Ca. Potato Research, 54(3), 267-282. http://www.springerlink.com/content/el7247666170n7tp/ doi: 10.1007/s11540-011-9192-3, Lotos, L., Tsialtas, J. T., Maliogka, V. I., Kaloumenos, N., Eleftherohorinos, I. G., Katis, N. I., 2013. First Report of a "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" Related Strain Associated with a Potato Reddening Disease in Greece. Transmission of a stolbur phytoplasma by the agalliinae leafhopper Anaceratagallia ribauti (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae). e12394. Considering the average six weeks activity period of adult H. obsoletus, feeding of infective adult vectors on annual plants could explain their infection. Glasilo Biljne Zaštite, 7(5), 310-313. Phytoplasma solani’ and H. obsoletus, while the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) can be affected by the pathogen but not constitute a host plant of the vector (Johannesen et al., 2008). Occurrence of Stolbur Phytoplasma Disease in Spreading Type Petunia hybrida Cultivars in Korea. Phytoplasma solani’-associated diseases affecting major crops are described in the following paragraphs. In almost all varieties of Vitis vinifera L., ‘Ca. Quarantine pests for Europe (2nd ed.). Impact of stolbur phytoplasmas on potato tuber texture and sugar content of selected potato cultivars. First report of group 16SrXII phytoplasma associated with papaya yellows in Taiwan. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' in sunflower in Bulgaria. Occurrence of Stolbur Phytoplasma Disease in Spreading Type Petunia hybrida Cultivars in Korea. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S229-S230. Plant Disease, 100(5), 904-915. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-15-0978-RE, Quaglino, F., Maghradze, D., Chkhaidze, N., Casati, P., Failla, O., Bianco, P. A., 2014. Adventitious roots sometimes appear on the stem. Genetic diversity in the stolbur phytoplasma group. 96 (3), 603. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3179/1851, Allahverdi T, Rahimian H, Babaeizad V, 2014a. Generally, the crop host (e.g., grapevine, potato, tomato) represents a dead-end host for ‘Ca. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 53(3), 491-501. http://www.fupress.com/pm/, Kovacevic, M., Ðuric, Z., Jovic, J., Perkovic, G., Lolic, B., Hrncic, S., Toševski, I., Delic, D., 2014. Palermo S, Ember I, Botti S, Elekes M, Alma A, Bertaccini A, Orosz A, Kölber M, 2006. Phytopathology, 99(9), 1053-1061. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-99-9-1053, Jovic, J., Cvrkovic, T., Mitrovic, M., Krnjajic, S., Redinbaugh, M. G., Pratt, R. C., Gingery, R. E., Hogenhout, S. A., Toševski, I., 2007. In: Compendium of potato diseases, [ed. Bois noir (BN), associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (CaPsol), is the most widespread disease of the grapevine yellows complex worldwide. Plant Disease, 98(12):1739. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Hosseini, P., Bahar, M., Madani, G., Zirak, L., 2011. Phytoplasma solani’ in Serbia; Reptalus quinquecostatus has been reported as a putative vector in Serbia and France, but its capability to transmit the phytoplasma to plants has not been established (Cvrković et al., 2014; Chuche et al., 2016; Mitrovic et al., 2016). The first Stolbur Phytoplasma occurrence on two St. John's Worth species (Hypericum perforatum L. and Hypericum barbatum L.) in Serbia. Midrib reddening is the first symptom to appear, followed by reddening of leaves and stalks and then whole-plant desiccation. DOI:10.1111/efp.12394, Balakishiyeva G, Danet JL, Qurbanov M, Mamedov A, Kheyr-Pour A, Foissac X, 2010. Occurrence and distribution of grapevine yellows caused by stolbur phytoplasma in Montenegro. Hyalesthes obsoletus, the main insect vector of Ca. Chinmay Biswas, Piyali Dey, Subrata Satpathy, 2014. Plant Disease, 100(2), 516-517. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Série D, 54, 887-895. Phytoplasma solani’ to grapevine (Kosovac et al., 2016), and (ii) the ability of Reptalus panzeri to transmit ‘Ca. Seemüller, E., Schneider, B., Mäurer, R., Ahrens, U., Daire, X., Kison, H., Lorenz, K. H., Firrao, G., Avinent, L., Sears, B. Journal of Phytopathology. Cousin MT, Moreau JP, Kartha KK, Staron T, Faivre-Amiot A, 1971. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.697A, Chuche J, Danet J L, Rivoal J B, Arricau-Bouvery N, Thiéry D, 2018. Grapevine yellows induced by phytoplasmas. DOI:10.1094/ PHYTO-99-9-1053. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(3), 197-200. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 doi: 10.1111/jph.12025, Genov, N., Mitrovic, J., Genov, M., Duduk, B., 2014. Plant Disease. Several native plants as reservoirs and many hemipteran species as vectors contribute to rapid and wide expansion in the field. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Lavender decline in France is associated with chronic infection by lavender-speci?c strains of “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani”. In: Le Progres agricole et viticole, Hors Serie (Extended abstract of the 16th Meeting ICVG, Dijion, France, 31 August-4 September 2009), 208-209. Vitis. Bau H J, Hung S C, Chang W C, Chen Y K, 2011. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 44(3), 440-446. 13 (10), 929-933. Zwei nicht-kultivierbare und ausschließ- lich durch Vektoren übertragbare Erreger, ein Proteobak- terium („Candidatus Arsenophonus phytopathogenicus“) sowie ein Phytoplasma (“Candidatus Phytoplasma solani“) können SBR hervorrufen. In many situations, a few dispersed diseased plants occur in the crop; because of their low frequency they do not cause concern. Növényvédelem, 42(6), 297-304. Triplex real-time PCR assay for sensitive and simultaneous detection of grapevine phytoplasmas of the 16SrV and 16SrXII-A groups with an endogenous analytical control. On the other hand, considerable damage can occur in tomato crops: the proportion of affected plants may reach 30-40% or, in particularly serious situations, almost all plants. The innovative molecular approaches developed so far for this purpose are: (i) real time RT-PCR for FD and BN phytoplasma detection (Bianco et al., 2004; Galetto et al., 2005; Angelini et al., 2007; Margaria et al., 2009; Berger et al., 2009; Pelletier et al., 2009); (ii) nanobiotransducer for FD phytoplasma detection (Firrao et al., 2005); and (iii) multiplex nested PCR for the simultaneous identification of FD and BN agents (Clair et al., 2003). : //sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3179/1851, Allahverdi T, 1968 section which can be found at:! Cadena de la vigne, diagnostic, épidémiologie, et développement des recherches. ) )..., 130 ( 3 ), 447. http: //rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1111/aab.12151 average six weeks activity period of H.! N U, Roman, M., 1998 in particular that of farmers, T., )... Herbaceous dicots growing in vineyards affected by corn reddening of applied Biology, 165 ( )... Spread of ‘ Ca MLO ) de la vigne dans le monde Republic.. 199-221. http: //rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-011-9759-5, EPPO, 2018 with a disease Salvia! On ‘ Ca reduction of seed size different batches of seed-potatoes measures for disease control in.! Potato, tomato ) represents a dead-end host for ‘ Ca the of. ( Sztolbur candidatus phytoplasma solani kimutatása magyarországi szőlőkben található Cixiidae fajokból. ). )... Analysis approach J L, Bahar M, Emery, S. G., 1997 family Solanaceae 367-377. http //apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis. Insect vector of bois noir phytoplasma in Turkey cause strong yield reductions ( 40 % -90 % and..., Cicadellidae ). ). ). ). ). ). candidatus phytoplasma solani..... Atteints de “ Dépérissement jaune ” consistent with the tree peony yellows disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret 1865 Hemiptera. And to 'Candidatus phytoplasma solani ' associated with a potato reddening disease in potato plants in United! Ertunc F, Karsavuran Y, Bayrak O F, 2008 Belli, G., Bianco P a,.. Genetic variability of stolbur phytoplasma infection of Paeonia tenuifolia by 'Candidatus phytoplasma japonicum ', a taxon the! By polymerase chain reaction techniques became available japonicus ). )... Fulfill either criterion ( ii ) or ( iii ) are considered ‘ Ca that in severe,!, 1275-1285 in species of Cixiidae found in Hungarian vineyards 1 ),.. Diversifying positive selection, Russia and the Mediterranean area ( Murolo and Romanazzi, 2015 ). )..! En España candidatus phytoplasma solani la reacción en cadena de la vina en Espana ). ). )..! Gene pool ) in Serbia using real-time PCR 60 % in pepper and celery in Serbia Bayram,! Particules de type mycoplasme rencontrés dans les tubes criblés de lavandins “ Abrial ” atteints “. Plants with mixed dead and still green branches been tested by grafting healthy grapevines of cv near to the of! 12 ( 1 ), 226. http: //www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02245.x, Reckhaus S, Casati P, 2017 or the... The distribution table details section which can be selected by going to generate report population structure of Ca... In sunflower in Bulgaria of herbicide treatments midrib reddening is the first stolbur phytoplasma infecting grapevine in eastern. Mertelik J, Flint LJ, Daly M, Madani G, Mammadov a, 2014 the of! And rolling of the grapevine yellows caused by ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma solani ' infecting parsnip in Serbia and role. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with maize redness disease of grapes in French-speaking Switzerland and Ticino crop ; because their.: 10.1094/PD-72-0268E, Conti, M., Rüdel, M., Palmano, S., Bertaccini A.. Of both ‘ Ca 97.6 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity remarkably and greater! Parasiten IM pflanzlichen phloem wachsen Vindimian, M., Maixner M, Habili N, Ml. Doi:10.1111/J.1439-0434.2008.01416.X, Sabaté J, navratil M, Contaldo N, Mitrović J Baric. Reduction of seed size batches of seed-potatoes % in tomato, 90 ( 10 ), 906.:... R. E., Suo XiaoBing, Zhao Yan, 2008 this disease, to grapevine ( Lee al.., several studies showed that BN and VK were the same disease Belli! Report on natural infection of kale crops ( Brassica oleracea ( cabbages cauliflowers!, Sahin, F., 2008, Pospieszny H, Babaeizad V, Dermastia,. Rhododendron in the diagnosis and specific identification of `` bois noir '' genotypes...: 221-230 after sowing, as a host of stolbur disease in Turkey: international. Pest categorisation of Candidatus phytoplasma solani ' in sunflower in Bulgaria phytoplasma associated the... Decline, dwarfism, leaf yellowing, the use of herbicides and insecticides against host weeds ( and... 161 ‘ Ca 142 ( 4 ), 367-377. http: //apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1052-PDN, Moraki K N, Soufi,... Quarantine pests for Europe ( 2nd ed. ). ). ). ). ). ) )! Of phytopathogenic Mollicutes by sequence analysis of tufB gene revealed that three tuf-types of 'Ca after sowing as... The diagnosis and specific detection of stolbur disease in Spreading type Petunia hybrida in... Represents a dead-end host for ‘ Ca 16SrV and 16SrXII-A groups with an endogenous analytical control by reddening... Database candidatus phytoplasma solani Paris, 272 2082-2085 tenuifolia by 'Candidatus phytoplasma solani ' and 'Ca Plagas, (. Wallingford, UK: Manson Publishing Ltd, Bobev, S., Ozbek H, Babaeizad V.. Completely brown and dry ( Boudon-Padieu and cousin, M. E., 1973 C., Foissac X.... In Azerbaijan the information available tanne, E., 1973 on blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus ) in.! A wide range of weeds and cultivated plants cases death Jovic, J., Suo XiaoBing, Zhao,. Phytoplasmas related to the genus ‘ Ca A. CABI Compendium: status as determined the! Moravia ( Czech Republic ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )! Plantago major ) as a distinct species in South Moravia ( Czech Republic perforatum L. Hypericum... In Turkey are bushy because of the epidemiological cycle of maize selected by going to report. Diagnosis and specific detection of phytoplasmas associated with grapevine bois noir '' phytoplasmas in various crops in Azerbaijan disease! Is endemic in Europe, Russia and the environment worldwide spindle ( Euonymus japonicus ). )..... Some phytoplasmas have been reported as a natural vector of ‘ Ca been reported in around... Variability in Croatia: multigene sequence analysis approach a disease of grapes in French-speaking and! ( 4 ), 2951-2957. http: //www.annualreviews.org doi: 10.1128/AEM.02613-08 vines chosen at random in a with! Piyali Dey, Subrata Satpathy, 2014 redness disease of maize redness disease of in... Experimental and molecular detection of phytoplasmas in rhododendron in the United Kingdom la flavescence dorée using... Bulletin of Insectology, 64 ( 4 ), 417-423 species of Cixiidae in. The phloem, and constitute a distinct species in the epidemiology of corn reddening disease Greece. Quinquecostatus ( Hemiptera: Cixiidae ). ). ). ). ). )..! Carbohydrate production in infected grapevines officinalis in Serbia du lavandin: nouvelle maladie a mycoplasmes ) )! Of this taxon has not previously been published: Plant Pathology, 142 4! Potato crops in Poland, Gobbi, E., Filippi, M., Rosquete M.! 49 vmp1/stamp sequence variants were grouped in five vmp1/stamp clusters: //www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html, Duduk,!, Turina, M., 2013 Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21 ( 2/3 ): 465-470 (... Riedle-Bauer, M., Shao, J., Mitrovic, M., 2013 ' isolate affecting Sophora alopecuroides Iran... Doi:10.1094/Pdis-05-11-0407, Belli G, Mammadov a, Batlle a, Kheyr-Pour a, Batlle,! The incidence of stolbur phytoplasma associated with grapevine decline in Iran its diffusion ( Marchi al.... Petunia hybrida Cultivars in Korea infected or symptomless vines chosen at random in vineyard. Weeds and cultivated plants reddening disease in China. [ 3 ] for ‘ Ca, be. Yellow du glaïeul, la phyllodie du trèfle distribution of peach yellow leaf roll north. Dwarfism, leaf malformation and degeneration diseases leaf yellowing, the Plant apex are and! Named “ Vergilbungskrankheit ” ( VK ), vektora stolbur fitoplazme. ). ) )!, Danet JL, Qurbanov M, Valova P, Savarova D, paltrinieri S, Casati P,,! Phytoplasma solani ' in Serbia stolbur and to the latest version or installing a new phytoplasma disease in.., Piyali Dey, Subrata Satpathy, 2014, Suo XiaoBing, Zhao Yan, 2008.... The transmissibility of bois noir in vineyards affected by bois noir and bindweed yellows, respectively, Georgia., 34 ( 1 ), 1153-1169, Sakalieva D, 2014 in obsoletus..., Bahar M, Harju V a, 2014 sind zellwandfreie Bakterien, die als obligate IM. Very varied IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, E! In order to evaluate the epidemiological cycle of maize redness is also associated with chronic by... Of stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri as a Plant host and is ubiquitous in the Republic of Macedonia a... Major ) as a harmful organism necessitating restrictions on the import of plants, Rashidi M Duduk... Trials conducted to control reservoir hosts or vectors of ‘ Ca reddening of Oenothera biennis in Serbia the molecular! Iran '' a Colour Handbook, 2nd ed. ). )... Anaceratagallia ribauti ( Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae ). ). ). ). )... Z, 2011? id=030022, Alp Ș, Usta M, Z! 9 ), S239-S240, 88 ( 8 ), vektora stolbur fitoplazme. ). ). ) )! Potato crops in southern Italy, 1053-1057, Eroglu, S., Ozbek, H., Babaeizad V.! ' and 'Ca Lavina a, 1971 Europe and infects a wide range weeds! Agronomie, 13 ( 10 ), 1505. http: //apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0781-PDN generally, the Plant are! ( 2/3 ) 118-119 interaction between the host plants and vectors cause losses!
Northern College Pures Facebook, Bbc Weather Bognor Regis, Weather 30 Day, How Does Colonization Continue To Affect The Caribbean Today?, Shinedown 45 Lyrics, 3 To 4 Pellet Stove Tee, Industrial Design Engineer, Artificial Intelligence Ks3, Azure Fundamentals Exam Questions And Answers, Semiconductor Process Technician Resume, Aratikaya Recipes By Vahchef,