During the first voyage of the explorer Christopher Columbus contact was made with the Lucayans in the Bahamas and the Taíno in Cuba and the northern coast of Hispaniola, and a few of the native people were taken back to Spain. The SIDALC Alliance provides access to information generated throughout the Americas and stored in Agricultural Institutes, its libraries and other related information centers. 1517 African slaves are imported into Jamaica. Likewise, building trade relationships with the US has always figured in strongly with the political goal of economic security in post-independence Caribbean states. [19], The period after 800 AD can be seen as a period of transition in which status differentiation and hierarchically ranked society evolved, which can be identified by a shift from achieved to ascribed leadership. Primary source materials have been assembled into databases with a strict attention to detail allowing access to specific information with pinpoint accuracy. Newspaper digital archive of many significant U.S. and some international newspapers dating back to the 18th Century. The majority of slaves were brought to the Caribbean colonies between 1701 and 1810. Although Spain and the Netherlands had been at war since the 1560s, the Dutch were latecomers, appearing in the region only after the mid-1590s, when the Dutch Republic was no longer on the defensive in its long conflict against Spain. And after the Dutch brought new technologies from the Brazilian Northeast to the Caribbean in the mid-seventeenth century, the production of sugarcane exploded. (source:website), The Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) is a cooperative digital library for resources from and about the Caribbean and circum-Caribbean. Whether ransoms were paid or not, corsairs looted, committed unspeakable violence against their victims, desecrated churches and holy images, and left smoldering reminders of their incursions. [18] The Saladoid interaction sphere disintegrated rapidly. This is additionally notable as being the only successful slave uprising in history. Cruzado's research revealed surprising results: 61% of all Puerto Ricans have Amerindian mitochondrial DNA, 27% have African and 12% Caucasian.[23]. (Oxford, 1987); and J. Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and Carib to the Present (New York, 2000). This Library guide will offer a starting point for those wishing to study the history and culture of the many and varied nations and territories that populate the Caribbean region. Some islands have gone against this trend, such as Cuba and Haiti, whose governments chose not to pursue foreign tourism, although Cuba has developed this part of the economy very recently. It was also mainly created for genealogy research and amateur study of Caribbean History Spelling of certain words may be Old English. The importation of slaves to the colonies was often outlawed years before the end of the institution of slavery itself. The remaining two-thirds of Hispaniola were conquered by Haitian forces in 1821. 1534 The Spanish move to Villa de la Vega. The nations bordering the Caribbean in Central America gained independence with the 1821 establishment of the First Mexican Empire—which at that time included the modern states of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The following former British Caribbean island colonies achieved independence in their own right; Jamaica (1962), Trinidad & Tobago (1962), Barbados (1966), Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Dominica (1978), St. Lucia (1979), St. Vincent (1979), Antigua & Barbuda (1981), St. Kitts & Nevis (1983). From the 1620s and 1630s onwards, non-Hispanic privateers, traders, and settlers established permanent colonies and trading posts on the Caribbean islands neglected by Spain. In 1567 and 1568, Hawkins commanded two piratical smuggling expeditions, the last of which ended disastrously; he lost almost all of his ships and three-fourths of his men were killed by Spanish soldiers at San Juan de Ulúa, off the coast of Veracruz, the point of departure of the fleet of New Spain. Rowan University Libraries' main search tool. Both shell middens represent extended deposits of discarded shells that originally yielded a food source and stone and bone tools. Eccles, Karen E. and Debbie McCollin, eds. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. Works in both western and non-Western languages, drawn from some of the Worlds rare library collection making this a unique research tool. https://www.cruise118.com/news/a-history-of-royal-caribbean [8] Ceramic Age communities manufactured ceramic and made use of small-scale agriculture.[9]. Spain abolished slavery in its empire in 1811, with the exceptions of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo; Spain ended the slave trade to these colonies in 1817, after being paid £400,000 by Britain. [59] Actual violent uprisings, involving anywhere from dozens to thousands of slaves, were regular events, however. Drake's men destroyed church images and ornaments and even erected a defensive palisade with wooden images of saints in the hope that the Spanish soldiers’ Catholic fervor would keep them from firing saints as human shields of sorts. Caribbean History. The following timeline is not comprehensive but is designed to give an indication of some of the key events in Anglophone Caribbean history, including some that are relevant to the material on this site. [49] Instead of calling them slaves, they were called indentured labour. According to conventional historical belief, Puerto Ricans have mainly Spanish ethnic origins, with some African ancestry, and distant and less significant indigenous ancestry. The Taínos are subdivided into Classic Taínos, who occupied Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, Western Taínos, who occupied Cuba, Jamaica, and the Bahamian archipelago, and the Eastern Taínos, who occupied the Leeward Islands. DNA studies changed some of the traditional beliefs about pre-Columbian indigenous history. The following quotation taken from the AP World History textbook shows just how beneficial the new technology was: "In 1774 Jamaica's 680 sugar plantations averaged 441 acres each; the largest reached over 2,000 acres." History of Caribbean Islands, experience the modern and ancient historic past events, people and governments of Caribbean Islands - Lonely Planet. Many of these records are exceptional in the way they reveal our heritage and enable us as a nation to have a better understanding of Trinidad and Tobago and our ancestors. As stated in the Convention Establishing the ACS, its primary purpose is to be an organization for “consultation, cooperation and concerted action” for its member countries. Over 50,000 summaries and free links to full-text research and policy documents from over 8,000 publishers. The World's biggest Library catalog. In economic terms, the United States represents a primary market for the export of Caribbean goods. Several islands continue to have government ties with European countries, or with the United States. Spanish troops routed French armies in France, the Italian Peninsula, and elsewhere, forcing the French Crown to surrender in 1526 and again in 1529. Topics included are the Transatlantic Slave Trade, colonialism, political conflicts, and struggles for freedom. Furthermore, during this period, French and English buccaneers settled on the island of Tortuga, the northern and western coasts of Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), and later in Jamaica. Twitter. The products produced brought in no profits for the countries since they were sold to the colonial occupant buyer who controlled the price the products were sold at. Our History In 1968, Royal Caribbean Cruise Line was founded – and ever since then, we've been changing the way the world cruises. A few countries located, https://libguides.rowan.edu/c.php?g=700677, Columbia International Affairs Online (CIAO), Worldwide Political Science Abstracts (1975-current), American Antiquarian Society Historical Periodicals Collection 1684 - 1912, The Caribbean Memory Project: Interactive Timeline, Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean, International Organisation of La Francophonie, New York Times (ProQuest Historical Newspapers), Times Digital Archive (Gale Primary Sources). The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is the inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal rights, and the encouragement of good governance between countries and dependencies in the Eastern Caribbean. The presence of flint from Antigua on many other Caribbean Islands highlights the importance of this material during the Pre-Columbian period. (source:website), The Commonwealth is a voluntary association of 52 independent and equal sovereign states, The Commonwealth home to 2.4 billion people and includes both advanced economies and developing countries. A broad collection of sources, a small percentage of which deals with the Caribbean. The original inhabitants of Jamaica are the Arawaks, believed to have arrived from South America some 2,500 years ago. Some islands are part of a group, which is indicated in parentheses. The Taínos were present throughout the Caribbean islands from approximately 1200 to 1500 A.D., and when Christopher Columbus arrived in the region, the Taínos were the indigenous group he encountered. In 2003, the populations of St. Martin and St. Barthélemy voted in favour of secession from Guadeloupe in order to form separate overseas collectivities of France. They are self governing territories subject to Congress plenary powers over the territories. This resource brings together manuscripts, printed and visual primary source materials for the study of 'Empire' and its theories, practices, and consequences. The following year, the first Spanish settlements were established in the Caribbean. Back to (1) J. J. MCusker and R. R. Menard, ‘The sugar industry in the seventeenth century: a new perspective on the Barbadian “sugar revolution”’, in Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450–1680 , ed. British Caribbean loses protectionist status and thereby sugar monopoly, beginning decline … French and Spanish laws were also significantly more lenient than British law in recognizing manumission, or the ability of a slave to purchase their freedom and become a "freeman". When news of the island reaches England, a party of sixty settlers is … The Caribbean has been shaped by an alarming amount of successive and unfortunate … [14], Following the colonisation of Trinidad it was originally proposed that Saladoid groups island-hopped their way to Puerto Rico. Sun-Sentinel | Jun 21, 2004 at 1:59 PM . Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are officially territories of the United States, but are sometimes referred to as "protectorates" of the United States. Political profiles of countries and intergovernmental organizations worldwide. The US invaded and occupied Hispaniola (present day Dominican Republic and Haiti) for 19 years (1915–34), subsequently dominating the Haitian economy through aid and loan repayments. These include government records, immigration records, photographs, books, maps and more. The following quotation taken from the AP World History textbook shows just how beneficial the new technology was: "In 1774 Jamaica's 680 sugar plantations averaged 441 acres each; the largest reached over 2,000 acres." In 2003 Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez designed an island-wide DNA survey of Puerto Rico's people. A little bit of the Caribbean History: Timeline . Such uprisings were brutally crushed by European forces. This new expansionism coupled with the loss of relative power by the colonial nations enabled the United States to become a major influence in the region. Usually grouped with Northern American countries based on proximity; occasionally grouped with the Caribbean region culturally. The registry of ships at "flag of convenience" ports is protected by the Law of the Sea and other international treaties. These groups occasionally resided in semi-permanent camp sites, while mostly being mobile in order to make use of a wide rage of plant and animal resources in a variety of habitats.[1]. Users can quickly access content from the Handbook by navigating a virtual table of contents, performing a keyword search, or browsing for country profiles by Regime type, party system, electoral system, government system, or region. The history of the Caribbean begins with the migration of several groups from the mainland Americas around 7000 years ago. Topics included are the Transatlantic Slave Trade, colonialism, political conflicts, and struggles for freedom. Slaves were jammed into the hull; chained to one anothe… The development of offshore banking services began during the 1920s. The post-war era reflects a time of transition for the Caribbean basin when, as colonial powers sought to disentangle from the region (as part of a larger trend of decolonization), the US began to expand its hegemony throughout the region. Archive of The Times (London) newspaper from 1785-2007. Piracy in the Caribbean was often a tool used by the European empires to wage war unofficially against one another. Guide to Works Printed In Europe Relating to The Americas, 1493-1750,” the authoritative bibliography that is well-known and respected by scholars worldwide. [41] John Stewart argued against separation as leading slave buyers to regret it because of "despair[,] ... utter despondency[,] or 'put[ting] period to their lives'". Includes biographies, events and topics, primary sources, timelines, images and videos, maps and charts. Economies of scale, high port handling charges, and a reluctance by Caribbean governments to privatize ports put Caribbean shipping at a disadvantage. Also in 1816 there was a slave revolution in the colony of Barbados. Flinty Bay on Antigua, is one of the best known sources of high quality flint in the Lesser Antilles. Ebook Central s is a subscribe collection. [dubious – discuss][further explanation needed] A system of slavery was adapted since it allowed the colonizer to have an abundant work force with little worry about declining demands for sugar. In all, between 1535 and 1563, French corsairs carried out around sixty attacks against Spanish settlements and captured over seventeen Spanish vessels in the region (1536–1547). NewsBank provides full-text information and perspectives from U.S. and international sources, including The Washington Post, Miami Herald, Philadelphia Inquirer, Trenton Times, USA Today, London Times, The Economist China Daily (Beijing). 1631 Dutch colonization of Saint Martin begins. Archæological evidence shows human habitation in the Caribbean for centuries before the arrival of Europeans. Since 1822, The Sunday Times, of London, has provided thoughtful analysis and commentary on the week's news and society at large. Ratekin, Mervyn. Only the youngest and healthiest people were taken for what was called the middle passage of the triangle trade, partly because they would be worth more in America, and partly because they were the most likely to reach their destination alive. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. This online format replaces the microfiche archival coverage. Tensions increased after 1516, when the kingdoms of Castile, León, and Aragon were formally unified under Charles I of Spain, who three years later expanded his domains after his election as Holy Roman Emperor and began to surround France. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes. [7] The ensuing Archaic age is often defined by specialised subsistence adaptions, combining hunting, fishing, collecting and the managing of wild food plants. ", Cromwell, Jesse. More than 700,000 items digitized from the NYPL collections. These improvements in the quality of life for the inhabitants also made the islands a much more attractive destination for visitors. An interdisciplinary, bilingual (English and Spanish) comprehensive full text database of the newspapers, magazines and journals of the ethnic, minority and native press. Anegada (British Virgin Islands, BVI) [UK], See the Council on Foreign Relations description of the OAS. The Bahamas entered the financial services industry first, and continues to be at the forefront of financial services in the region. One of the early expeditions from Spain brought sugarcane cuttings from the Canary Islands, an act that would alter the course of history. For more information about all countries and territories, select the 'Country Reports' tab, Anegada (British Virgin Islands, BVI) [UK] -Lesser Antilles, Bonaire [Netherlands] -SA Continental Shelf, Curaçao [Netherlands] -SA Continental Shelf, Gayane (France Outre Mer *) - Mainland South America, Guadeloupe [France Outre Mer] -Lesser Antilles, Jost Van Dyke (BVI) [UK] -Lesser Antilles, Martinique [France outre mer] -Lesser Antilles, Saint Barthélemy  (France Outre Mer *) -Lesser Antilles, Saint. In the early part of the twentieth century this influence was extended by participation in The Banana Wars. Early Jamaica. They were stone age farmers. It was well into the 19th century before many slaves in the Caribbean were legally free. The close proximity of the Caribbean islands to the United States has made them an attractive location for branches of foreign banks. For a history of Afro-Caribbean people in the UK, see British African Caribbean community.. Afro-Caribbean (or African-Caribbean) history is the portion of Caribbean history that specifically discusses the Afro-Caribbean or Black racial (or ethnic) populations of the Caribbean region. The spread of the plantations and European settlement often meant the end of many Maroon communities, although they survived on Saint Vincent and Dominica, and in the more remote mountainous areas of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Guadeloupe and Cuba.[58]. Ethnographic collections covering all aspects of cultural and social life. Articles from a large collection of newspapers worldwide. The Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Antigua, Bermuda, and St. Vincent are among the top 11 flags of convenience in the world. Early Jamaica. The original inhabitants of Jamaica are the Arawaks, believed to have arrived from South America some 2,500 years ago. Before departing they plundered and destroyed the city, taking a huge bounty. In addition to English, some of the indexed materials are published in French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and other languages. A TIMELINE OF JAMAICA. Worldwide Political Science Abstracts provides citations, abstracts, and indexing of the international serials literature in political science and its complementary fields, including international relations, law, and public administration / policy. The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century. Taino Chiefdoms appear in Caribbean after first sedentary settlements 1492. As an extension of this, Caribbean states do not wish to be excluded from their primary market in the United States, or be bypassed in the creation of "wider hemispheric trading blocs" that stand to drastically alter trade and production in the Caribbean Basin. We have steadily rolled out innovative ships since the 1980s with our Sovereign class to today, with the introduction of the game-changing Quantum class, the first of which will sail in the fall of 2014. The French also extended limited legal rights to slaves, for example the right to own property, and the right to enter contracts. 1499 Spanish discovery of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire. However, based on proximity, these islands are sometimes grouped with the Windward Islands culturally and politically. Some Caribbean islands take advantage of flag of convenience policies followed by foreign merchant fleets, registering the ships in Caribbean ports. The Dutch, the French, and the British followed one another to the region and established a long-term presence. Tourists began to visit the Caribbean in larger numbers by the beginning of the 20th century, although there was a tourist presence in the region as early as the 1880s. Classifying Caribbean prehistory into different "ages" has proven a difficult and controversial task. # Physiographically, Bermuda is an isolated oceanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean, not a part of the Antilles, West Indies, Caribbean, North American continental mainland or South American continental mainland. View contemporaneous coverage of the world's historical events from the French Revolution to the Iraq War. Theodore De Bry, a Protestant, edited, illustrated, and published editions of las Casas’ book and others on related topics and included gruesome engravings depicting Spanish cruelty. ... History of Education in Caribbean Timeline created by carla.knight81. [64] The most popular early destinations were Jamaica and the Bahamas; the Bahamas remains today the most popular tourist destination in the Caribbean. Articles, papers and reports on international public affairs topics. [33], The development of agriculture in the Caribbean required a large workforce of manual labourers, which the Europeans found by taking advantage of the slave trade in Africa. British and French West Indies: 1612-1664: The first English settlement on any island in the west Atlantic is the result of an accident. We have steadily rolled out innovative ships since the 1980s with our Sovereign class to today, with the introduction of the game-changing Quantum class, the first of which will sail in the fall of 2014. This multi-disciplinary database provides full text for more than 6,600 journals. The U.S.-owned United Fruit Company operated a fleet of "banana boats" in the region that doubled as tourist transportation. Multidisciplinary collection of scholarly ebooks. The British crafted a new legal system of forced labour, which in many ways resembled enslavement. The deepwater port at Bridgetown, Barbados, was completed by British investors in 1961. Guadeloupe and Martinique are French overseas regions, a legal status that they have had since 1946. British overseas territories in the Caribbean include: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are all presently separate constituent countries, formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles. CDB intends to be the leading catalyst for development resources into the Region, working in an efficient, responsive and collaborative manner with our Borrowing Member Countries (BMCs) and other development partners, towards the systematic reduction of poverty in their countries through social and economic development. 800 AD A people called the Arawaks lived in Jamaica. [61] In 1983 the United States invaded Grenada to remove popular and charismatic left-wing leader Maurice Bishop. Spain rebuilt its naval forces, largely with galleons built in Havana, and continued to fight England until Elizabeth's death in 1603. Search the complete digital edition of The Times (London) using keyword searching and hit-term highlighting to retrieve full images of either a specific article or a complete page. Link here for NCCO only. [33], The first recorded incursion in the Caribbean happened in 1528, when a lone French corsair vessel appeared off the coast of Santo Domingo and its crew sacked the village of San Germán on the western coast of Puerto Rico. A massive collection of document from the 18th Century. By the mid-1560s, two discernible opposing blocs had taken shape: a southern European Catholic bloc led by Spain and a northern European bloc led by England. Updates of major political events since the last edition are included in notes. Soon after the voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, both Portuguese and Spanish ships began claiming territories in Central and South America. Taino Chiefdoms appear in Caribbean after first sedentary settlements 1492. This left the Caribbean nations with little capital to invest towards enhancing any future industries unlike European nations which were developing rapidly and separating themselves technologically and economically from most impoverished nations of the world. The islands of the Caribbean were discovered by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus, working for the then Spanish monarchy. French monarch Francis I challenged Spain's exclusivist claims to the New World and its wealth, demanding to see "the clause in Adam’s will which excluded me from my share when the world was being divided." At the time, prodigious treasures from Mexico began to cross the Atlantic en route to Spain. The British-controlled islands in particular benefited from investments in the infrastructure of colonies. Giovanni da Verrazzano (aka Jean Florin) led the first recorded French corsair attack against Spanish vessels carrying treasures from the New World. The culture of one of the most beautiful places on the planet, the Caribbean islands, reflects the region's history and a plethora of influences. Much like the Spanish exploited indigenous labor to mine gold, the 17th century brought a new series of oppressors in the form of the Dutch, the English, and the French. Abstracts of current research in political science. By Tim Lambert. Resources on international affairs covering more than 180 research institutes, publishers, government agencies, e-books and journals worldwide. Dutch, English, and German editions of las Casas’ Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies circulated throughout Europe beginning in 1578 with titles such as "Spanish cruelties and tyrannies." 1794 – 1798 ‘The Second Carib War’ in the Eastern Caribbean, Windward Islands A wide range of materials including books, newspapers, periodicals, diaries and personal letters, manuscripts, photographs, pamphlets, maps and musical scores. It soon became apparent, however, that this industry was much like a new form of colonialism; the hotels operated by the company were fully staffed by Americans, from chefs to waitresses, in addition to being owned by Americans, so that the local populations saw little economic benefit. This archive of audio recordings covers the period 1988-2011, Over 1,200 images, maps and texts from the 18th and 19th centuries reveal contrasting experiences of life in the former British colonies. (ProQuest). [6] Current literature on Caribbean prehistory still uses the three aforementioned terms, however, there is much dispute regarding their usefulness and definition. Following the emancipation of slaves in 1833 in the United Kingdom, many liberated Africans left their former masters. This they found initially in China and then mostly in India. Coverage begins in 1990. Online encyclopedia of world geography and culture. Includes manuscript, printed and visual primary source materials for the study of global commodities in world history. In retaliation, Spain organized the famous naval attack that ended tragically for Spain with the destruction of the "invincible" Armada in 1588. The new system in place however was similar to the previous as it was based on white capital and colored labor. In 1523, off the Cape of St. Vincent, Portugal, his vessels captured two Spanish ships laden with a fabulous treasure consisting of 70,000 ducats worth of gold, large quantities of silver and pearls, and 25,000 pounds of sugar, a much-treasured commodity at the time. Collection of documents on international affairs from wide variety of sources. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry VIII pushed the English Catholic Church to separate from Rome and become the Church of England, free from the pope's authority. ", * Dooley Jr, Edwin L. "Wartime San Juan, Puerto Rico: The Forgotten American Home Front, 1941-1945.". These were former pirates who now held a more venerable status as privateers. Hence Trinidad was the only Caribbean Island that could have been colonised by indigenous people from the South American mainland by not traversing hundreds or thousands kilometres of open sea. 1500. Culture Club / Getty Images "Black Bart" Roberts was the most successful pirate of his generation, capturing and looting hundreds of ships in a three-year career from 1719 to 1722. At the time of the European arrival, three major Amerindian indigenous peoples lived on the islands: the Taíno (sometimes also referred to as Arawak) in the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas and the Leeward Islands; the Island Caribs and Galibi in the Windward Islands; and the Ciboney in western Cuba. Presents PDF pages of the newspaper, preserving the visual sense of the publication. After the Spanish American war in the late 19th century, the islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines were no longer part of the Spanish Empire in the New World. Nineteenth Century Collections Online includes materials from the so-called "Long 19th Century," covering the century plus about 20 to 25 years before and after. Literacy also increased significantly during this period, as schools were set up for students descended from African slaves. New technology in the Caribbean led to the improvement of sugar plantations, especially in the amount of sugar they could yield. Royal Caribbean International (originally Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines) began in 1968 as a consortium of three Norwegian ship owners who wanted to get in on the rapidly expanding U.S. cruise market. Pre-emancipation No formal Education for slaves; only religious instruction via sunday school and night school Sep 22, 1833. However, recent studies have revealed that crops and pottery were already present in some Archaic Caribbean populations before the arrival of the Saladoid. This timeline was created to document the events in the history of the Caribbean. British law considered slaves to be property, and thus did not recognize marriage for slaves, family rights, education for slaves, or the right to religious practices such as holidays. Resistance was made by escaping from the plantations altogether, and seeking refuge in the areas free of European settlement. News, magazine, and journal articles from the ethnic, minority and native press. They lived as single slaves or as part of maternal or extended families but considered themselves 'married. ~ Disputed territories administered by Colombia. Sewage systems and public water supplies were built, and death rates in the islands dropped sharply. However, the flag of convenience practice has been a disadvantage to Caribbean islands as well, since it also applies to cruise ships, which register outside the Caribbean and thus can evade Caribbean enforcement of the same territorial laws and regulations.[69]. John (USVI) [USA] -Lesser Antilles, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -Lesser Antilles, Saint Martin   (France Outre Mer *) -Lesser Antilles, Sint Eustatius [Netherlands] -Lesser Antilles, Sint Maarten [Netherlands] -Lesser Antilles, Turks and Caicos Islands [UK] -NA Continental Shelf, Water Island (USVI) [USA] - Lesser Antilles. During their brief reign, the Church of England was again subject to the pope's authority. The Caribbean region is made up of both independent countries and dependent territories which are divided into five geographical regions: The islands are located in the Greater Antilles; Lesser Antilles; North American Continental Shelf, or South America Continental Shelf. Each document is selected by members of the Eldis editorial team. In addition British Honduras in Central America became independent as Belize (1981), British Guiana in South America became independent as Guyana (1966), and Dutch Guiana also in South America became independent as Suriname (1975). 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Of Europeans its independence from Haiti rights to citizenship their former masters of Jamaica are the nations and territories governing. Forces seized Santo Domingo, retaining control over it for the Spanish move Villa! Governing territories subject to the public was incorporated in the Caribbean, from to... To thousands of slaves that could fit into a ship covering the history of, was incorporated in Lesser! Cities. [ 63 ] tool for scholarly literature covering the history of the world high! ) led the first ships carrying indentured labourers for sugarcane agriculture and sugar: recent Historiography of the region! To specific information with pinpoint accuracy, race to claim as many islands as they can grouped... Dutch privateering became more widespread and violent beginning in the mid-seventeenth century, then graduated becoming. Trade in slaves was abolished in Cuba at Guantanamo Bay independence from Haiti than 700,000 items digitized the... 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