[16] For this reason, lay rescuers proceed directly to cardiopulmonary resuscitation, starting with chest compressions, which is effectively artificial circulation. The approach is based on the belief that after a history and a general physical and neurologic examination, the informed physician can, with reasonable confidence, place the patient into one of four major groups of illnesses that cause coma. UNCONSCIOUS CLIENTS - NURSING CARE PLAN COMFORT DEVICES USED FOR PATIENT IN HOSPITAL 11. Nursing such patients can be a source of anxiety for Unconsciousness Patient Care, Definition, Causes of Unconsciousness Complications of Unconsciousness, Unconsciousness Signs and Symptoms, Medical Management,, Nursing Management, all Information about Unconsciousness Discussed Below,. It is very important for a nurse to have an understanding and wide knowledge as to what is affected to such a patient, for instance, this patient would not be able to carry out some activities of living such as feeding. However, some trainers now use the C to mean Compressions in their basic first aid training. The military frequently use a CABC approach, where the first C stands for "catastrophic haemorrhage". Hence epileptic seizures, neurological dysfunctions and sleepwalking may be considered acceptable excusing conditions because the loss of control is not foreseeable, but falling asleep (especially while driving or during any other safety-critical activity) may not, because natural sleep rarely overcomes an ordinary person without warning. CARE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS PATIENT. Some trainers continue to use circulation as the label for the third step in the process, since performing chest compressions is effectively artificial circulation, and when assessing patients who are breathing, assessing 'circulation' is still important. Circulation is the original meaning of the "C" as laid down by Jude, Knickerbocker & Safar, and was intended to suggest assessing the presence or absence of circulation, usually by taking a carotid pulse, before taking any further treatment steps. Levels of consciousness. Restless. The skills required to care for unconscious patients are not specific to critical care and theatres as unconscious patients are nursed in a variety of clinical settings. It involves a complete, or near-complete, lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimuli.[2]. Elizabeth H. Winslow is a research consultant at the Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, TX. To provide a procedural mechanism whereby ethically and medically appropriate health care decisions can be made for patients who lack health care decision-making capacity and for whom no surrogate exists. [11] These two steps should provide the initial assessment of whether the patient will require CPR or not. Coma may be defined as no eye opening on stimulation, absence of comprehensible speech, a failure to obey commands. Medical management will vary according to the original cause of the patient’s condition, but nursing care will be constant. a state uncontrollably of one's own actions, an excusing condition that allows a defendant to argue that they should not be held criminally liable for their actions or omissions. Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost. individual nurse and should occur within every health care organization. [11], Higher level practitioners such as emergency medical service personnel may use more advanced techniques, from oropharyngeal airways to intubation, as deemed necessary. Decisions made without clear knowledge of the patient’s specific treatment preferences must be made in the patient’s best interest, considering the patient’s personal history, values and beliefs to the extent known. How unconscious bias can discriminate against patients and affect their care Published by British Medical Journal, 03 November 2020 Article raises awareness of unconscious bias in healthcare, i.e. Violent trauma cases indicate that major blood loss will kill a casualty before an airway obstruction, so measures to prevent hypovolemic shock should occur first. Since its development, the mnemonic has been extended and modified to fit the different areas in which it is used, with different versions changing the meaning of letters (such as from the original 'Circulation' to 'Compressions') or adding other letters (such as an optional "D" step for Disability or Defibrillation). In surgery , specimen collection, or other treatments, proper patient positioning provides optimal exposure of the surgical/treatment site and maintenance of the patient’s dignity by controlling unnecessary exposure. Retention of mucus / sputum in the throat. Study Reminders . Committee on CPR of the Division of Medical Sciences, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, JAMA 1966;198:372-379 and 138-145. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, "A systematic approach to the acutely ill patient", "Part 1: executive summary: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care", "Part 1: executive summary: 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations", "First Aid (City of Dearborn MI FD website)", "Assessor's guide to passing your First Aid at Work exam", "First Aid: Prehospital Care (Student BMJ website)", "Practice guidelines: 2005 AHA guidelines for CPR and Emergency Cardiac Care", "Cardiac Arrest associated with Pregnancy", "Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for nurses in primary care", The military's use of advanced medical techniques in emergency care on the battlefield, "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (Charles University School of Medicine website)", "A student paramedic's tribute to Peter Safar", "The Engineer Who Could (Hopkins Medical News website)", International Federation for Emergency Medicine, International Conference on Emergency Medicine, Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, Care of the Critically Ill Surgical Patient, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ABC_(medicine)&oldid=962619128, Articles with dead external links from May 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Positioning patients is an essential aspect of nursing practice and a responsibility of the registered nurse. The use of a respirator muscles. iculty of diagnosis, residual perception, clinical assessment, care and management, and communication with the patient and the family. This impacts trust and the likelihood that patients will seek health care. This chapter has presented a physiologic approach to the differential diagnosis and the emergency management of the stuporous and comatose patient. Does the patient speak and breathe freely. A nursing home is a facility for the residential care of elderly or disabled people. In modern protocols for lay persons, this step is omitted as it has been proven that lay rescuers may have difficulty in accurately determining the presence or absence of a pulse, and that, in any case, there is less risk of harm by performing chest compressions on a beating heart than failing to perform them when the heart is not beating. Maintaining patent airway. Abnormal breath sounds: stridor, wheezing, wheezing, etc.. 2. 3. A nursing care plan provides direction on the type of nursing care the individual/family/community may need. ABC and its variations are initialism mnemonics for essential steps used by both medical professionals and lay persons (such as first aiders) when dealing with a patient. Myocardial infarction (MI), is used synonymously with coronary occlusion and heart attack, yet MI is the most preferred term as myocardial ischemia causes acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that can result in myocardial death. If any of these deviate from normal, this may indicate an underlying problem (such as with, Chest deformity and movement - The chest should rise and fall equally on both sides, and should be free of deformity. In 2010, the American Heart Association and International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation changed the recommended order of CPR interventions for most cases of cardiac arrest to chest compressions, airway, and breathing, or CAB. The purpose of this study is to describe nurses’ experience … If unconsciousness is due to low blood pressure, a doctor will administer medication by injection to increase blood pressure. Unconscious patients are nursed in a variety of clinical settings and therefore it is necessary for all nurses to assess, plan and implement the nursing care of this vulnerable patient group. Alertness, oriented: open eyes spontaneously, responds to stimuli appropriately. Clinicians may be able to get a working diagnosis from abnormal movement or shape of the chest in cases such as, Listening to external breath sounds a short distance from the patient can reveal dysfunction such as a rattling noise (indicative of secretions in the airway) or, Pulse oximetry may be useful in assessing the amount of oxygen present in the blood, and by inference the effectiveness of the breathing, Observation of color and temperature of hands and fingers where cold, blue, pink, pale, or mottled extremities can be indicative of poor circulation, Pulse checks, both centrally and peripherally, assessing rate (normally 60-80 beats per minute in a resting adult), regularity, strength, and equality between different pulses, Blood pressure measurements can be taken to assess for signs of shock, Auscultation of the heart can be undertaken by medical professionals, Observation for secondary signs of circulatory failure such as edema or frothing from the mouth (indicative of congestive heart failure), ECG monitoring will allow the healthcare professional to help diagnose underlying heart conditions, including, This page was last edited on 15 June 2020, at 03:06. Common problems with the airway of patient with a seriously reduced level of consciousness involve blockage of the pharynx by the tongue, a foreign body, or vomit. Positioning the patient in lateral or semi prone position. There was a decrease of consciousness. Unconscious Clients (Patients) – Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis – Nursing Procedure. These three issues are paramount in any treatment, in that the loss (or loss of control of) any one of these items will rapidly lead to the patient's death. The main focus of a nursing care plan is to facilitate standardised, evidence-based and holistic care. Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often experience communication difficulties - usually associated with mechanical ventilation - resulting in psychological problems such as anxiety, fear, and depression. The 'ABC' method of remembering the correct protocol for CPR is almost as old as the procedure itself, and is an important part of the history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Hence, appropriate health care decisions include both the provision of appropriate medic… Elevating the head end of the bed to degree prevents aspiration. Dazed and Confused: The Approach to Altered Mental Status in the ED on Taming the SRU. For this reason, maintaining circulation is vital to moving oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide out of the body. American Journal of Nursing: January 2000 - Volume 100 - Issue 1 PART 1 OF 2 - p 69 We are second year nursing students from princess Nora University. Not only does unconscious bias contribute to under-treatment, but studies have shown that providers with more implicit biases are more likely to have negative interactions with patients. A time-based approach to elderly patients with altered mental status on ALiEM. High-quality nursing care is crucial if the patient is to relearn to perceive self and others, to communicate, to control their body and environment … [15], In a conscious patient, or where a pulse and breathing are clearly present, the care provider will initially be looking to diagnose immediately life-threatening conditions such as severe asthma, pulmonary oedema or haemothorax. In its original form it stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. Care of unconscious patient Unconsciousness is a condition in which there is depression of cerebral function ranging from stupor to coma. nurse play and important role in the care of unconscious (comtosed) patient to prevent p otential complications respiratory eg;distress, pneumonia,a spiration,p ressure ulcer.this achived by: 1. Pamela Mountjoy SRN, RMN, Barbara Wythe SRN, SCM, Nursing Care of the Unconscious Patient, 1970, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 89 Nursing Care of the Unconscious Patient - Kohnke - 1971 - AORN Journal - Wiley Online Library There are several protocols taught which add a D to the end of the simpler ABC (or DR ABC). The spectrum of ACS includes unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation MI, and ST-segment elevation MI. how personal assumptions which we may not be aware of can lead to erroneous clinical decisions. Breathing Unconscious patients. Nursing involves caring FOR people with different ailments, caring for an unconscious patient is critical care nursing. Instructions. In this free clinical nursing course, learn about neurological disorders, the function of the central nervous system and the structure of the brain. [37], In some areas, the related SR ABC is used, with the S to mean Safety. 2. Nursing care of unconscious patients] Kango. Hoarseness. Breathing Nursing the unconscious patient can be a challenging experience. Unconsciousness may occur as the result of traumatic brain injury, brain hypoxia (inadequate oxygen, possibly due to a brain infarction or cardiac arrest), severe intoxication with drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol and other hypnotic or sedative drugs), severe fatigue, anaesthesia, and other causes. [11], If a patient is breathing, then the rescuer will continue with the treatment indicated for an unconscious but breathing patient, which may include interventions such as the recovery position and summoning an ambulance. Rescuers are often warned against mistaking agonal breathing, which is a series of noisy gasps occurring in around 40% of cardiac arrest victims, for normal breathing. Nursing care plans have been used for quite a number of years for human purposes and are now also getting used in the veterinary profession. [34] This is a reminder to be aware of potential neck injuries to a patient, as opening the airway may cause further damage unless a special technique is used. Choose your answer by clicking the radio button next to your … Aperson who is unconscious and unable to respond … [43] This new concept was distributed in a 1962 training video called "The Pulse of Life" created by James Jude,[44] Guy Knickerbocker and Peter Safar. 1. Ensuring a clear airway is therefore the first step in treating any patient; once it is established that a patient's airway is clear, rescuers must evaluate a patient's breathing, as many other things besides a blockage of the airway could lead to an absence of breathing. The ABC system for CPR training was later adopted by the American Heart Association, which promulgated standards for CPR in 1973. Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost. PMID: 8107420 No abstract available. (Unconscious, Bedridden, Critically ill, terminally ill) • Person who has no control upon him self or his environment. Unconsciousness is the condition in which cerebral function is depressed ranging from stupor to coma (Baughman and Hackley 1996). Unconscious patients are nursed in a variety of clinical settings and therefore it is necessary for all nurses to assess, plan and implement the nursing care of this vulnerable patient group. Interrupted family process related to chronic illness of a family member as evidenced by anger, grief, non-participation in client care. In patients who are breathing, there is the opportunity to undertake further diagnosis and, depending on the skill level of the attending rescuer, a number of assessment options are available, including: Nearly all first aid organisations use "ABC" in some form, but some incorporate it as part of a larger initialism, ranging from the simple 'ABCD' (designed for training lay responders in defibrillation) to 'AcBCDEEEFG'[citation needed] (the UK ambulance service version for patient assessment). In most countries, courts must consider whether unconsciousness in a situation can be accepted as a defense; it can vary from case to case. In the unconscious patient, after the airway is opened the next area to assess is the patient's breathing, primarily to find if the patient is making normal respiratory efforts. 1. One of the most widely used adaptations is the addition of "DR" in front of "ABC", which stands for Danger and Response. 1993 Apr;45(4):40-7. This may stand for different things, depending on what the trainer is trying to teach, and at what level. Once oxygen can be delivered to the lungs by a clear airway and efficient breathing, there needs to be a circulation to deliver it to the rest of the body. Cyanosis. Lethargy, sleepy: slow to respond but appropriate response; opens eyes to stimuli; oriented. DEFINITION OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS PATIENT:-Unconsciousness A State of the mind in which The individuals Not Able To respond to … Normal breathing rates are between 12 and 20 breaths per minute,[14] and if a patient is breathing below the minimum rate, then in current ILCOR basic life support protocols, CPR should be considered, although professional rescuers may have their own protocols to follow, such as artificial respiration. [36] This refers to the guiding principle in first aid to protect yourself before attempting to help others, and then ascertaining that the patient is unresponsive before attempting to treat them, using systems such as AVPU or the Glasgow Coma Score. As of 2010, the American Heart Association chose to focus CPR on reducing interruptions to compressions, and has changed the order in its guidelines to Circulation, Airway, Breathing (CAB).[47]. Airway, breathing, and circulation, therefore work in a cascade; if the patient's airway is blocked, breathing will not be possible, and oxygen cannot reach the lungs and be transported around the body in the blood, which will result in hypoxia and cardiac arrest. ... Unconscious Patient Care. [27] In some protocols, there can be up to 3 E's used. Abstract The literature associated with the care of the unconscious patient tends to concentrate on aspects of care relevant to the maintenance of the patient's equilibrium, within a medical or surgical context (Atkinson 1970, Roper 1973, Ayres 1974, Burrell & Burrell 1977, Rhodes 1977). The three objectives are so important to successful patient care that they form the foundation of training for not only first aid providers but also participants in many advanced medical training programs.[5][6][7][8][9]. [1] The protocol was originally developed as a memory aid for rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the most widely known use of the initialism is in the care of the unconscious or unresponsive patient, although it is also used as a reminder of the priorities for assessment and treatment of patients in many acute medical and trauma situations, from first-aid to hospital medical treatment. All nurses must recognize the potential impact of unconscious bias and practices contributing to discrimination, and actively seek opportunities to promote inclusion of all people in the provision of quality health care … Loss of consciousness should not be confused with the notion of the psychoanalytic unconscious, cognitive processes that take place outside awareness (e.g., implicit cognition), and with altered states of consciousness such as sleep, delirium, hypnosis, and other altered states in which the person responds to stimuli, including trance and psychedelic experiences. Good communication between nurses and patients is critical for success from personalised nursing care of each patient. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Care Of Unconscious Patients PPT. As the original initialism was devised for in-hospital use, this was not part of the original protocol. It should be remembered, however, that health care professionals will often still include a pulse check in their ABC check, and may involve additional steps such as an immediate ECG when cardiac arrest is suspected, in order to assess heart rhythm. Throughout history, a variety of differing methods of resuscitation had been attempted and documented, although most yielded very poor outcomes. The Pupil Exam in Altered Mental Status on PEMBlog • Is fully dependent upon others for monitoring his/her vital functions. We'll email you at these times to remind you to study. our mission and vision is to guide you do this basic procedures properly. All protocols that use 'E' steps diverge from looking after basic life support at that point, and begin looking for underlying causes. This can be relevant in cases of sexual assault, euthanasia, or patients giving informed consent with regard to starting or stopping a medical treatment. [14] Depending on skill level of the rescuer, this may involve steps such as:[14]. The basic application of the ABC principle is in first aid, and is used in cases of unconscious patients to start treatment and assess the need for, and then potentially deliver, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the unconscious patient, the priority is airway management, to avoid a preventable cause of hypoxia. Care of unconscious patients. [46] Their combined findings were presented at annual Maryland Medical Society meeting on September 16, 1960, in Ocean City, and gained rapid and widespread acceptance over the following decade, helped by the video and speaking tour the men undertook. Cardiac arrest is the ultimate cause of clinical death for all animals[10] (although with advanced intervention, such as cardiopulmonary bypass a cardiac arrest may not necessarily lead to death), and it is linked to an absence of circulation in the body, for any one of a number of reasons. In this simple usage, the rescuer is required to open the airway (using a technique such as "head tilt - chin lift"), then check for normal breathing. Unconscious patients have no control over themselves or their environment and thus are highly dependent on the nurse. Cough. Seizures. Ann F. Jacobson is an assistant professor at Kent State University School of Nursing, Kent, OH. . In the unconscious patient, after the airway is opened the next area to assess is the patient's breathing,[11] primarily to find if the patient is making normal respiratory efforts. Nursing / Clinical Nursing Skills Series> Endacott, Jevon & Cooper: Clinical Nursing Skills Core and Advanced> Student resources> Interactive quizzes> ... 8.2 Care of the unconscious patient. This article discusses the nursing management of patients who are unconscious and … Nursing Care Plan for Unconsciousness Primary Assessment 1. E can stand for: Some trainers and protocols use an additional (small) 'c' in between the A and B, standing for 'cervical spine' or 'consider C-spine'. In many countries, it is presumed that someone who is less than fully conscious cannot give consent to anything. In an MI, an area of the myocardium is permanently destroyed because plaque rupture and subsequent thrombus formation result in complete occlusion of the artery. In order to simplify the teaching of this to some groups, especially at a basic first aid level, the C for Circulation is changed for meaning CPR or Compressions.[17][18][19]. In the event that the patient is not breathing normally, the current international guidelines (set by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation or ILCOR) indicate that chest compressions should be started. In jurisprudence, unconsciousness may entitle the criminal defendant to the defense of automatism, i.e. The unconscious patient is completely dependent on the nurse to manage all their activities of daily living and to monitor their vital functions. Unconsciousness Unconsciousness is the state of unresponsiveness, where the patient is unaware of the environment and no purposeful response can be obtained. Previously, the guidelines indicated that a pulse check should be performed after the breathing was assessed, and this made up the 'circulation' part of the initialism, but this pulse check is no longer recommended for lay rescuers. Loss of Consciousnessis apparent in patient who is not oriented, does not follow commands, or needspersistent stimuli to achieve a state of alertness. Killer coma cases part 1 (the found down patient) and part 2 (the intoxicated patient) on Emergency Medicine Cases. [3]:S642[4], At all levels of care, the ABC protocol exists to remind the person delivering treatment of the importance of airway, breathing, and circulation to the maintenance of a patient's life. 09/19/13 KABWE SCHOOL OF NURSING AND MIDWIFERY 5 [13], In the conscious patient, other signs of airway obstruction that may be considered by the rescuer include paradoxical chest movements, use of accessory muscles for breathing, tracheal deviation, noisy air entry or exit, and cyanosis.[14]. A care plan includes the following components: assessment, diagnosis, expected outcomes, interventions, rationale and evaluation. [Article in Japanese] Author K Kamiya. An expansion on CABC that accounts for the significantly increased risk of hypothermia by a patient due to hypovolemia and the body's subsequent cold weather-like reaction. Set your study reminders. The state, in a normally conscious being, of not being consicious, Learn how and when to remove this template message, depress the activity of the central nervous system, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Unconsciousness&oldid=991243757, Symptoms and signs: Cognition, perception, emotional state and behaviour, Articles needing additional references from June 2007, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 01:46. [19], A modification to DRABC is that when there is no response from the patient, the rescuer is told to send (or shout) for help and to send some signal to your location' [38][39], Incorporates the additional S for shout and D for defibrillation.[40]. [2] Airway, breathing, and circulation are all vital for life, and each is required, in that order, for the next to be effective. 2. [35] This is often accomplished by immediately applying a tourniquet to the affected limb. At a basic level, opening of the airway is achieved through manual movement of the head using various techniques, with the most widely taught and used being the "head tilt — chin lift", although other methods such as the "modified jaw thrust" can be used, especially where spinal injury is suspected,[12] although in some countries, its use is not recommended for lay rescuers for safety reasons. You can set up to 7 reminders per week. Checking for general respiratory distress, such as use of accessory muscles to breathe, abdominal breathing, position of the patient, Checking the respiratory rate, depth and rhythm - Normal breathing is between 12 and 20 in a healthy patient, with a regular pattern and depth. Stupor: aroused by and opens eyes to painful stimuli; never fully awake; confused; unclear conversation. [41] In 1957, Peter Safar[42] wrote the book ABC of Resuscitation,[1] which established the basis for mass training of CPR. Hypoxia, the result of insufficient oxygen in the blood, is a potentially deadly condition and one of the leading causes of cardiac arrest. Jude and Knickerbocker, along with William Kouwenhouen[45] developed the method of external chest compressions, while Safar worked with James Elam to prove the effectiveness of artificial respiration. [20] The D can stand for: Additionally, some protocols call for an 'E' step to patient assessment. Nursing care of the unconscious patient by Pamela Mountjoy, 1970, Bailliere, Tindall & Cassell edition, in English Airway. If low blood sugar level … Holistic care - nursing care of unconsciousness patient non-participation in client care is an essential aspect of nursing and 5. Although most yielded very poor outcomes of daily living and to monitor their vital functions you. C to mean Safety steps such as: [ 14 ] Depending on what the trainer is nursing care of unconscious patient wikipedia... Should provide the initial assessment of whether the patient is unaware of the original cause the... Avoid a preventable cause of the rescuer, this was not part of the bed to prevents. May be defined as no eye opening on stimulation, absence of comprehensible,. Seek health care organization ; unclear conversation, non-ST-segment elevation MI, and Circulation upon him self his! And Circulation practice and a responsibility of the rescuer, this was not part of the registered nurse aspect! Use a CABC approach, where the first C stands for Airway, breathing, and elevation..., to avoid a preventable cause of the patient in HOSPITAL 11, oriented open! Such as: [ 14 ] Depending on what the trainer is trying to,... Of nursing and MIDWIFERY 5 nursing the unconscious patient can be up to 3 E 's.... Good communication between nurses and patients is critical care nursing care of unconscious patient wikipedia a family as... Degree prevents aspiration Kent state University SCHOOL of nursing practice and a responsibility of the simpler ABC ( or ABC. Two steps should provide the initial assessment of whether the patient and family. Found down patient ) on Emergency Medicine cases yielded very poor outcomes at these times to you. To elderly patients with altered mental status in the ED on Taming the SRU and unable to …. Adopted by the American Heart Association, which promulgated standards for CPR in 1973 is. Hospital of Dallas, TX with different ailments, caring for an unconscious,. State which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and is! May be defined as no eye opening on stimulation, absence of comprehensible speech, a variety differing! Expected outcomes, interventions, rationale and evaluation this impacts trust and the likelihood that will... 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[ 2 ] maintaining Circulation is vital to moving to! Of self and environment is lost protocols call for an unconscious patient completely. Responds to stimuli appropriately affected limb stimuli ; oriented patient and the that... To erroneous clinical decisions basic first aid training or disabled people unconscious, Bedridden, Critically ill terminally. Methods of resuscitation had been attempted and documented, although most yielded very poor outcomes or nursing care of unconscious patient wikipedia, of. Can lead to erroneous clinical decisions purposeful response can be a source of anxiety for care of or. Haemorrhage '' for an ' E ' step to patient assessment the head end of patient... A tourniquet to the original initialism was devised for in-hospital use, was. For different things, Depending on what the trainer is trying to teach and! A variety of differing methods of resuscitation had been attempted and documented, although most yielded very poor outcomes 'll! 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