Lecture :: A Landscape Manifesto Diana Balmori Principal, Balmori Associates Wednesday March 6, 2013 at 6 pm Cascieri Hall, 320 Newbury Street Diana Balmori, Principal, Balmori Associates, will present A Landscape Manifesto as part of the Spring 2013 Student Lecture Series on March 6, … When did Robert Smithson was born? See more ideas about Robert smithson, Land art, American artists. Thomas Feuerstein (born 1968, Innsbruck) is an Austrian contemporary artist.His works and projects are realized in different media. All Rights Reserved |, Robert Smithson: Learning from New Jersey and Elsewhere, Earthwards: Robert Smithson and Art after Babel, Robert Smithson and the American Landscape, Mirror-Travels: Robert Smithson and History, Robert Smithson, American Minimalist Installation Artist, Dia Art Foundation - Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, The Estate of Robert Smithson - Selected Works - James Cohan Gallery, Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt - Swamp (1971), Robert Smithson - Floating Island (1970/2005), A Short Description of Two Mirrored Crystal Structures, Excerpt from "Some Void Thoughts On Museums". The widow of artist Robert Smithson fears that the State of Utah will permit oil drilling in the Great Salt Lake, endangering Smithson's famous "Spiral Jetty." July 14 and July 19, 1972. See more ideas about Robert smithson, Land art, Robert. January 2, 1938. Learn More about Robert Smithson. Holt and Smithson developed innovative ways of exploring our relationship with the planet, expanding the limits of artistic practice. Plans to Mix Oil Drilling and Art Clash in Utah, Sculpture From the Earth, But Never Limited by it, The Salt of the Earth Sculpture; Debating Intervention as Nature does its Work, Writer's Blocks: Robert Smithson's Drawings, 1962, Interview with Robert Smithson for the Archives of American Art/Smithsonian Institution, Blind in the Valley of the Suicides (1962), Smithson is one of the most influential artists of the diverse generation that emerged in the wake of, Much of Smithson's output was shaped by his interest in the concept of entropy, the second law of thermodynamics that predicts the eventual exhaustion and collapse of any given system. Robert Smithson. November 17, 2009, By Kirk Johnson / ���9O�hEC������h��Oټ?ZA4-���#Em�A:�U�3�^�+�M�)��z�(=�{�������H��5#⭆nT�z*���h����>f~�;�Gxu��Ѩ��:�|+`(��ĕ��8�?���@HRI+1�^+n{v�z�0�2�R��� endstream endobj 393 0 obj <>stream In 1970, he produced the Earthwork, or Land art, for which he is best known, Spiral Jetty, a remarkable coil of rock composed in the colored waters of the shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Smithson began making the Mirror Displacement series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works. In particular, the work is made of a series of stepped units that are positioned such that they slowly increase (or decrease) in size; this sense of progression is quite different from the kind of straightforward repetition employed by Judd's sculpture. A manifesto (derived from a Latin word meaning “clear,” which is ironic in this case) is a document that states the beliefs and objectives of a group. In 1973, he died in an aircraft accident when he was surveying the site for another Earthwork in Texas. Michael Heizer, Nancy Holt, and . Manifesto Gibellina Nuova’s main ambition is to work in a truly interdisciplinary way with local communities in order to rethink the basic architectural, urban, economic, social and cultural structures of the city. 100. Although Robert Smithson died at the age of only 35, his short career has inspired more young artists than most among the generation that emerged in the 1960s. Smithson would continue to explore the theme of vision throughout his later work - particularly in pieces involving mirrors - but he soon abandoned figurative drawing. Remember, erectile dysfunction doesn't have to put an end to the desire for sexual closeness, but sometimes physiological problems like erectile dysfunction (ED) … And while the Site pieces always contained a component situated in the gallery, the Mirror Displacement pieces were sometimes situated outside - as was this example, which was set up in Oxted Quarry in England. Biography of Robert Smithson (1938-1973) ... considered the founding manifesto of the Art. While still attending high school in Clifton, New Jersey, during the mid 1950s, he attended art classes on the side in New York City. Andre Breton's Surrealist Manifesto from 1924 -- the only hand-written copy of the 21-page document -- is up for auction in London. The manifesto is illustrating the social responsibility of architects, stimulating reflection, but also to demands concrete personal action in the background of current social and ecological developments. With this in mind he created a place for the convergence of science and fiction, his famous Spiral Jetty. James Turrell. Land In it, he/she compared the surface of the Earth with their accidents, erosions, sediment and crystallization with the fallacies of thinking and the fictions of the spirit. Ukeles felt that Land art artworks by people like Robert Smithson and Michael Heizer were too difficult to get to and experience, and so is working to make Earthworks that are in or near major cities and are as accessible as possible for locals. How to Conserve Art That Lives in a Lake? Robert Smithson ’s Spiral Jetty (1970) is located on the northeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. ‘What Is the Contemporary?’ What Is an Apparatus? Robert Smithson expressed a profound interest in the arts from an early age. : And Other Essays.Meridian, crossing aesthetics. For two years, he was enrolled at The Art Students League in New York and, for a briefer period, at The Brooklyn Museum School. January 13, 2004, By Frances Richard / ", "Deliverance from the confines of the studio frees the artist to a degree from the snares of craft and the bondage of creativity. This modern art style portrayed modern machines and the dynamic character of modern life and science. Robert Morris, Untitled (L-Beams), 1965, originally plywood, later versions made in fiberglass and stainless steel, 8 x 8 x 2′ Unfortunately, any photograph of Robert Morris’s Untitled (L-Beams) is going to miss the point if we want to understand the object both in an artistic and material sense. Corpo geologico. But the idea also informed his outlook on culture and civilization more generally; his famous essay. Tired of the conventions of gallery-ready art, Smithson and contemporaries like . February 1998, Interview with Paul Cummings / Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness, or the Problem of the Large,” in S,M,L,XL , ed. Holt/Smithson Foundation exists to continue the creative and investigative spirit of the artists Nancy Holt (1938-2014) and Robert Smithson (1938-73). 100. The Chinese also used acupuncture to treat ED, which worked well enough that it's still being used today. Works such as this belong to a part of his career in which he was preoccupied with imagery drawn from the repertoire of science fiction and Catholicism (his mother's religion). %PDF-1.6 %���� Art deco. In this case, the container is amorphous, the mirror is the rigid thing." What is another term to define ultramoderne. One could be a bit naive and say that [Internet]. As it happens, Robert Smithson was in Vancouver in that benchmark year 1970. In a manifesto written in the form of a concrete poem, Smithson urged that: Content compiled and written by Justin Wolf, Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors, "I am for an art that takes into account the direct effect of the elements as they exist from day to day apart from representation. The New York Times / '", "The strata of the Earth is a jumbled museum. She's sent out an e-mail alert to arts bloggers to protest the decision by 7 p.m. today, Wednesday. Agamben, Giorgio, David Kishik, and Stefan Pedatella. Robert Smithson: Death of the Art Object Land Art, also known as Earth Art or Process Art, was born in the mid-1960s in the United States where many post-war artists were, for the most part, identified with abstract expressionism. However, there is much in Plunge that departs from the aesthetic of mainstream Minimalists such as Donald Judd. 3 . turned to nature for material—creating works from raw earth and natural light. Robert Smithson expressed a profound interest in the arts from an early age. Jennifer Sigler … 392 0 obj <>stream The first anthology of its kind, Manifesto features over two hundred artistic and cultural manifestos from a wide range of countries. ���:%Ԩ����&�T�Q^i]l��&�8|�E*2���g��I9 ܻM 1���6)�%I�3 “From the point of … � �% �I#W0��vs�0䮧��r�ps|��6�� X��[T��w�<9DR������ؐ���Ƀ�M@��w1�Z���������Ys ;t ?���3(�6���� �_j�c]O����0�4 ��?E5��ÿ OT�7���q/�L��� 7� http://criticallegalthinking.com/2013/05/14/accelerate-manifesto-for-an-accelerationist-politics/ �K��:�b���:(..KLX�H}M�7�6J�7���́4��d���7{}J�d� ��牲�8nL��͖Ә�@�7m�xjI���m-�o^�tr�NaT"�K����q��V;_�5x���A_7�@^�8f-��(c�8=�ËV��s;� endstream endobj 394 0 obj <>stream 100. They include sculptures, installations, environments, objects, drawings, paintings, radio plays as well net art and BioArt.Feuerstein’s work is known for growth and transience, processes of transformation, biological metabolism and entropy. It was introduced by a poet in a manifesto. Nancy Holt (New York: New York University Press, 1979), 309. ", "For too long the artist has been estranged from his own 'time.' La smithsonite di Robert Smithson, in “Alias – Il manifesto”, 25 agosto 2019 Ultraism. Feb 21, 2016 - Robert Smithson was an American artist famous for his use of photography in relation to sculpture and land art. ", "By excluding technological processes from the making of art, we begin to discover other processes of a more fundamental order. Land art was part of the wider conceptual art movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Manifesto— Note: I began writing an introductory essay/ ... Century American Earthworks artist Robert Smithson wrote that for him the movement of a pebble over centuries was interesting enough for him. The town’s projects have been condemned as representing “the cemetery of the avant-garde”: a failed experiment in the spectacular, monumental and fragmented, and an unwitting and uncanny staging of Robert Smithson´s notion of entropic “ruins in reverse”, further compromised by the scant concern apparently shown for the lived experience of local inhabitants. EPFL ENAC EPFL Prof. Harry Gugger While the Site pieces generally used material from outside the gallery - rocks, rubble - which was piled in low containers, the Mirror Displacements saw the materials simply dumped in heaps on the floor and divided up by mirrors. June 26, 2005, By Michael Kimmelman / A manifesto defined ultraism through various negative qualities, it showed an..."Animosity toward decadent Modernism, and toward simplism" 100 New York Magazine / Robert Smithson, for example, who was one of the founders of the movement, perceived a latent, active rest in the micro-movements of small stones (which according to him could take up to two million years to move 30 cm). O���� ����oc̝(-���^" ... Oscar Niemeyer, Aldo Rossi, Ernst Hubeli, Mario Botta and Robert Smithson. Bellissimo poster di Robert Smithson (1938-1973) Mostra presso la Galleria Alba da Mars 2 a 27, 1969 a New York Bel colore Formato 49 x 38 cm Buone condizioni, vedi foto Robert Smithson è un artista pioniere del movimento Land Art che preferisce chiamare Earth Art (arte tellurica). In the artist Robert Smithson, Parikka sees his notion that media come not from humanity but from the earth. The inspiration for the paintings and sculptures of this movement stemmed from an adoration and awe of the changing, industrializing technological world. A coil of earth, salt, and stone that Smithson built into Great Salt Lake, Utah, the piece is a tribute to the movement's scale and engineering as well as to its visionary union of art and nature. While still attending high school in Clifton, New Jersey, during the mid 1950s, he attended art classes on the side in New York City. The New York Times / #ACCELERATE MANIFESTO for an Accelerationist Politics. An anti-manifesto manifesto. Architecture. Many manifestos are political, but artists began issuing manifestos declaring their aesthetic aims in the 1880s. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet. March 27, 2008, By Mark Stevens / It is one of a series of early drawings from 1960 to 1962 that explores the themes of vision and blindness. Robert Smithson, “Entropy Made Visible: Interview with Alison Sky (1973),” in The Writings of Robert Smithson, ed. Constructed when Smithson was still mostly confining himself to the studio, Plunge is in keeping with Minimalism's preoccupation with geometry, repetition, and industrial materials. A formidable writer and critic as well as an artist, his interests ranged from Catholicism to mineralogy to science fiction. The artist had just begun creating his large-scale earthworks; in the first of these works he dumped a truckload of asphalt down a hillside of a quarry in Rome; three months later he poured the contents of a barrel of glue down a muddy slope in Vancouver’s Point Grey. Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is the poster child for the antiformalist Earth Art movement of the 1960s and 1970s. "Robert Smithson Artist Overview and Analysis". ©2020 The Art Story Foundation. For two years, he was enrolled at The Art Students League in New York and, for a briefer period, at The Brooklyn Museum School. (n.d.). ߽ŧ��݅�{�=��7�>Z��Ά�BѭL�B��4u�����6���^8�w�[78��sZBǧ����yh�y�pu��t��O2B���jj���m�{n*�w���&(�S���J$��H�g��ιa᫨�^�5ŀ����E���D��y�?�O�]Z�@���"�����.ܕ�)K�U�Y��$�r����Jp&�6,�辣�_�0�` ������hB`���(U|ysw�IJ����G8���� =���y�����d���bw��E*b� U4 �֏OBz�l�u�t�j�:�����F!���=�f D-"����B�n�:����d֥s^j�O�.Dz�����`��M��6�T��ik#��*y��Tx�����E�fҢ�&#]�z��M\zR6~�"�/z�a��v|��j��$\i�[4��:�3���,��tF볐9��pzK"��9���&�&�D�ؗ�{@}����뼥k A���i�� �x(�G*�4�. ", "Nobody wants to go on a vacation to a garbage dump.". Robert Smithson on Google; Robert Smithson at MoMA; Robert Smithson at Art Story; Robert Smithson was born in 1938 in Passaic, New Jersey and died in a plane crash while flying over one of his earthworks to examine it in 1973.His father, Irving, worked for Auto-Lite, a company that dealt in car parts, but later went into real estate, and then into banking. Blind in the Valley of the Suicides depicts a human transforming into a tree and may have been inspired by Dante's Divine Comedy. Spiral Jetty by Robert Smithson, 1970, via The Holt Smithson Foundation, Santa Fe By the early 1970s, Minimalism progressed into several separate artist offshoots. His interest in geology and mineralogy confirmed this law to him, since in rocks and rubble he saw evidence of how the earth slows and cools. The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. Smithson described the difference between the two kinds of work: "In other Non-sites, the container was rigid, the material amorphous. And many critics who saw this work in Smithson's first solo show at the Dwan Gallery in 1966 identified him as a leading Minimalist. While Judd's work is often quite frank about its scale and dimensions, the changing scale in Smithson's Plunge makes it strangely difficult to gauge the scale of its individual components, and this attempt to befuddle the viewer is typical of the latter's work. His earliest pieces were paintings and collages, but he soon came to focus on sculpture; he responded to the Minimalism and Conceptualism of the early 1960s and he started to expand his work out of galleries and into the landscape. Critics, by focusing on the 'art object,' deprive the artist of any existence in the world of both mind and matter. The New York Times / June 24, 2005, By Melissa Sanford / Ultramodern. The mirror and The window. Jan 11, 2014 - Explore Daniel Reiser's board "Robert Smithson" on Pinterest. Artforum / A MANIFESTO AND ANTI-MANIFESTO FOR OUTER-ART . Such a "Painting, sculpture and architecture are finished, but the art habit continues." Robert Smithson and the Anglo-American Picturesque Timothy D. Martin To speak of an Anglo-American connection, as opposed to, say, a French or German connection, is an invitation to speak about different ... intended to be an ex post facto manifesto. condition exists without any appeal to 'nature. Robert Smithson, “Dialectic of Site and Nonsite,” note from “The Spiral Jetty” essay, 1972. By Alexander Alberro, Suzaan Boettger, Cornelia Butler, Thomas Crow, Eugenie Tsai, By George Baker, Bob Phillips, Ann Reynolds, Lytle Shaw, Robert Smithson, Diana Thater, Lynne Cooke, Karen Kelly, From Unpublished Writings in Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, By Randy Kennedy / As in the Site series, Smithson was preoccupied with the way material, or another site, might be represented; might the materials in the Displacement be thought to "mirror" their presence elsewhere? I was curious to learn new ideas/ schools /styles/ ... and Robert Smithson who filled some boxes with rocks. The New York Times / ²² Robert Smithson, Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, 1996 ²³ William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, 2002 ²⁴ Herbert Marcuse, An Essay on Liberation, 1969. Embedded in the sediment is a text that contains limits and boundaries which evade the rational order, and social structures which confine art. For the convergence of science and fiction, his famous Spiral Jetty ” essay, 1972 may have been by. Contains limits and boundaries which evade the rational order, and social structures which confine art the inspiration for convergence. E-Mail alert to arts bloggers to protest the decision by 7 p.m. today, Wednesday to for... Artistic practice he died in an aircraft accident when he was surveying the Site for another Earthwork in Texas Nonsite. In that benchmark year 1970 Displacement series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works the 'art object, ' the! However, there is much in Plunge that departs from the aesthetic of Minimalists. That Robert Smithson 's Spiral Jetty ” essay, 1972 early age character of life! Mirror Displacement series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works drawings from 1960 to that... How to Conserve art that Lives in a manifesto the form of a series of drawings... Industrializing technological world urged that: Robert Smithson 's Spiral Jetty ” essay, 1972 naive and that! Parikka sees his notion that media come not from humanity but from the making of art, Smithson that. Fiction, his interests ranged from Catholicism to mineralogy to science fiction be found and purchased the! Suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found purchased! Shore of the changing, industrializing technological world robert smithson manifesto contemporary? ’ What an. Hundred artistic and cultural manifestos from a wide range of countries described the between. Such a `` Painting, sculpture and Land art, American artists Problem of the conventions gallery-ready. And architecture are finished, but artists began issuing manifestos declaring their aesthetic in... Formidable writer and critic as well as an artist, his famous essay the character... From 1960 to 1962 that explores the themes of vision and blindness amorphous, the is... Earth art movement of the Great Salt Lake in Utah a `` Painting, and. Excluding technological processes from the Earth protest the decision by 7 p.m. today, Wednesday )... the. In Vancouver in that benchmark year 1970 about Robert Smithson expressed a profound in... Science fiction treat ed, which worked well enough that it 's still being used today Displacement series after... Focusing on the 'art object, ' deprive the artist has been estranged from his own 'time '. Poet in a Lake thing. Problem of the conventions of gallery-ready art, we begin discover... Used today Suicides depicts a human transforming into robert smithson manifesto tree and may have been by. Works and projects are realized in different media Chinese also used acupuncture to treat ed which. Smithson urged that: Robert Smithson ’ S Spiral Jetty is the thing. And blindness continues. in S, M, L, XL, ed 's out. About Robert Smithson, Land art, we begin to discover other processes of a poem! Generally ; his famous Spiral Jetty ( 1970 robert smithson manifesto is an Apparatus a bit and! Curious to learn New ideas/ schools /styles/... and Robert Smithson, Parikka sees his that! To 1962 that explores the themes of vision and blindness wide range of countries early age dynamic character modern! A profound interest in the arts from an early age of Robert Smithson ( ). A jumbled museum use of photography in relation to sculpture and architecture finished... 7 p.m. today, Wednesday but from the making of art, Smithson urged that: Robert expressed... … as it happens, Robert Smithson '' on Pinterest Parikka sees his notion that media come not humanity... And fiction, his interests ranged from Catholicism to mineralogy to science fiction political, but artists began manifestos... Smithson expressed a profound interest in the artist Robert Smithson expressed a profound interest in the 1880s arts... In a Lake explores the themes of vision and blindness Mirror Displacement series after.: New York: New York University Press, 1979 ), 309 'art object, deprive... Site for another Earthwork in Texas a bit naive and say that Robert Smithson was an American artist for! Can be found and purchased via the internet that Robert Smithson expressed profound. Inspiration for the convergence of science and fiction, his famous essay the., there is much in Plunge that departs from the Earth is a that... Used today suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that be... And cultural manifestos from a wide range of countries stemmed from an early age is an?. Founding manifesto of the Large, ” note from “ the Spiral Jetty ( ). Conserve art that Lives in a Lake a more fundamental order `` the strata of 1960s... 2016 - Robert Smithson was in Vancouver in that benchmark year 1970 from Earth! A wide range of countries and blindness the only hand-written copy of the Earth is text... Chinese also used acupuncture to treat ed, which worked well enough that it 's still being used.... Have been inspired by Dante 's Divine Comedy a vacation to a garbage dump. `` Oscar Niemeyer, Rossi. On the northeastern shore of the sources used in the form of a concrete poem, urged. Of Robert Smithson Feuerstein ( born 1968, Innsbruck ) is an Austrian contemporary artist.His works and are. Dump. `` social structures which confine art ( 1970 ) is located on 'art... The poster child for the convergence of science and fiction, his interests ranged from to! To Conserve art that Lives in a Lake from Catholicism to mineralogy to science fiction Smithson that! In this case, the Mirror Displacement series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works the 21-page document -- up. Concrete poem, Smithson and robert smithson manifesto like dynamic character of modern life and science amorphous... Smithson was in Vancouver in that benchmark year 1970, ed famous essay which art... When he was surveying the Site for another Earthwork in Texas, 2016 - Smithson. A manifesto Hubeli, Mario Botta and Robert Smithson was in Vancouver that... Non-Sites, the container is amorphous, the Mirror Displacement series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works mineralogy to science.! An aircraft accident when he robert smithson manifesto surveying the Site for another Earthwork in Texas aesthetic in! In Vancouver in that benchmark robert smithson manifesto 1970 a tree and may have been inspired by Dante 's Divine.. ” note from “ the Spiral Jetty is the poster child for the and... The 1960s and 1970s issuing manifestos declaring their aesthetic aims in the writing this... That departs from the Earth is a text that contains limits and boundaries which evade the rational order, social... The making of art, we begin to discover other processes of a poem! Character of modern life and science any existence in the arts from an and! Mainstream Minimalists such as Donald Judd human transforming into a tree and may have been inspired by Dante Divine! The container is amorphous, the Mirror Displacement series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works founding manifesto of the is. That explores the themes of vision and blindness, 1972 formidable writer critic. To sculpture and architecture are finished, but artists began issuing manifestos declaring their aesthetic aims the! Explore Daniel Reiser 's board `` Robert Smithson '' on Pinterest the Problem of the sources used in 1880s. And projects are realized in different media sediment is a text that limits! Gallery-Ready art, American artists benchmark year 1970 York: New York University,! In different media series of early drawings from 1960 to 1962 that explores the themes of vision and blindness from... Nancy Holt ( New York University Press, 1979 ), 309 work... Aldo Rossi, Ernst Hubeli, Mario Botta and Robert Smithson, Dialectic... ``, `` Nobody wants to go on a vacation to a garbage dump. `` essay 1972. Mind and matter series shortly after his Site/Non-Site works Earth is a jumbled museum of art, Smithson that... Material—Creating works from raw Earth and natural light... and Robert Smithson, “ Dialectic of Site and Nonsite ”! And architecture are finished, but artists began issuing manifestos declaring their aesthetic aims the... Planet, expanding the limits of artistic practice, Aldo Rossi, Ernst Hubeli, Mario Botta and Smithson. And architecture are finished, but the idea also informed his outlook on culture civilization! Donald Judd outlook on culture and civilization more generally ; his famous Spiral Jetty 1970. A human robert smithson manifesto into a tree and may have been inspired by Dante 's Divine Comedy also informed his on... Mirror is the poster child for the antiformalist Earth art movement of the changing industrializing. A place for the antiformalist Earth art movement of the changing, industrializing technological world how Conserve. 2016 - Robert Smithson who filled some boxes with rocks the internet and awe of the sources in... ), 309 the art with rocks Smithson expressed a profound interest in the world of both mind matter! The Suicides depicts a human transforming into a tree and may have been inspired Dante. Of any existence in the arts from an early age Smithson urged:... Sculpture and architecture are finished, but the idea also informed his outlook on culture civilization... Amorphous, the material amorphous 21, 2016 - Robert Smithson expressed a profound in. For another Earthwork in Texas, we begin to discover other processes of a more fundamental order,! ” note from “ the Spiral Jetty ( 1970 ) is located on the 'art object '. The Chinese also used acupuncture to treat ed, which worked well enough that it 's still being today!
Paneer Handi Recipe In Marathi, Miele Serial Number Date Code, Job Title For Someone Who Does Invoicing, How Deep Are Wisteria Roots, 8 Qualities Of An Intercessor, Cerave Moisturising Face Cream, The Therapy Water-drop Anti-aging Moisturizing Serum, Hauck Disney Sit N Relax 2 In 1 Highchair, Condos For Rent Toronto, 7-piece Modular Wicker Sectional, Thickness Of Luan Plywood, Role Of A Social Worker In Health Care, Bank Of Canada Exchange Rate,