Little wonder that in its own day it was valued so highly. Caesar, having completed two major campaigns in one summer, now moves his troops — earlier than usual — into winter quarters in Sequani land and departs for northern Italy to preside over provincial courts and administer justice. Caesar in Gaul Arriving in Gaul in 58 BC, Julius Caesar began a series of campaigns to pacify the region and bring it under Roman control. Also, the Treveri report that a hundred clans of the Suebi tribe encamped across the Rhine are attempting to cross and are led by two brothers, Nasua and Cimberius. Caesar notices that the Sequani stand silent in the tearful group that begs for assistance and asks why they act this way. In Gallia Narbonensis, the stretch of southern France connecting Spain to Italy, the Gallic people had largely been assimilated into Roman culture over the course of the last century. he firmly established his reputation in the Gallic Wars Gallic Wars, campaigns in Gaul led by Julius Caesar in his two terms as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul, and Illyricum (58 B.C.–51 B.C. Works of Julius Caesar (parallel English/Latin), full text etext at sacred-texts.com This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. The representatives then ask permission to announce a convention of all Gaul to present certain requests to Caesar. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning.The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battle against a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. He complains loudly, reminding them that Rome undertook the war largely in response to their pleas for aid. Caesar orders the people to seek out and return the runaways or he will hold them responsible. Caesar's speed also concerns itself at times with massive construction and, concerning that construction, a reader will do well to keep in mind that Caesar comments frequently on many details of construction in all his books. He has, he insists vehemently, occupied this section of Gaul, and the Romans are at fault, intruders objecting to a judgment other than their own, something they cannot tolerate. Finally, he cannot ignore the Helvetian boasts of victory and their assumption that vile indiscretions will go unpunished. from your Reading List will also remove any Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Seemingly, this would provoke total war between the two testy men, but only small cavalry skirmishes take place for five days. Caesar, therefore, interrupts his talk to return to his soldiers, forbidding them to return the enemy's fire. The men of the Tenth Legion ask their tribunes to express to Caesar their appreciation for his trust and praise. Notice while reading the Gallic Wars that he usually keeps units in reserve to assist Romans in difficulty or to take advantage of an unexpected opportunity. Previous Table of contents Next Book VII I.-III. Of the two adequate marching routes out of Helvetia, the route through the land of the Sequani, between the Rhone river and the Jura mountain range, where carts can travel only in single file along a narrow route passing under steep cliffs, is less desirable; here unfriendly observers in strategic locations can easily ambush. Later that day, patrols report that the enemy is camping below a cliff eight miles away and Caesar orders a scouting party to the cliff, followed by Titus Labienus in charge of two legions to take the top of the cliff. Diviciacus, the Aeduan and Caesar's friend, as spokesman recounts past events. He marches a triple line to the German camp, compelling Ariovistus to form battle lines. Boldly he has acquired power and managed ample sources for bribery and now, carefully, he has plotted his future by calculatedly suitable marriages. When he arrives near Geneva, he requisitions troops from the whole Province and, with no more than one legion, he orders the Geneva bridge destroyed. A few Germans manage to cross, Ariovistus among them, but the rest are captured and killed. Caesar immediately sends deputies to Ariovistus, requesting him to set a halfway station for a parley regarding mutual problems, but Ariovistus replies that, since it is Caesar who wants something, Caesar must come to Ariovistus; the latter believes that he would be foolhardy to travel without his army's protection to the Roman-occupied area of Gaul. The reaction of Caesar, therefore, is of particular military importance and is a good example of the celeritas which has made him widely famous. Their goal is peace with a minimum of supervision so that their troops are free for other projects. 1:1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. This, he considers a disgrace to himself and the greatness of Rome. Caesar thus shifts the command of river fortifications to Lieutenant General Titus Labienus, hurries to Italy, and assembles an army of five legions. The tribal concept of valiant fighting was one of strength and bravery in head-on battle formations. Caesar pays careful and constant attention to all details and is swift to calculate, judge, and move to keep the initiative. Later, during the secret assembly, more psychology and politics are employed. The magistrates prepare to capture and try him, but Orgetorix dies before he can be recaptured and, although knowledge is scanty, the Helvetii believe that his death was a suicide. When he is finished, he announces that the camp will move in the early morning hours and that even if no one else follows that he still intends to march with his faithful Tenth Legion. All these differ from each other in … However, one day German troops took back their land forcing one Gaul tribe to retreat back their main city. Caesar then subdues the Morini and the Menapii tribes. Tribal armies will buy, capture, or plunder for future needs. The German general, however, accuses them of spying and, without discussion, makes them prisoners. Nighttime, however, proves to be a friend to the Gauls: some 130,000 enemy escape and after three days arrive at the border of the Lingones. Thus they take a bolder stand and attempt, with their rearguard, to provoke future battles. It is noteworthy that Caesar has cause to cease negotiations when the German troops violate the truce but, more important, that he tries another avenue for peace by sending emissaries who are known to Ariovistus and who can speak Gallic as fluently as Ariovistus. The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in September, 52 BC, around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe. Book III finds Caesar, during 56 B.C., sending Servius Galba to open a toll-free route through the Alps. Caesar rejects Ariovistus' arguments and speaks at length that Rome does not abandon allies. Before leaving, he boasts that Helvetian ability is based on courage rather than cunning strategy and advises Caesar not to court future military disasters for Rome. All rights reserved. Also, Caesar again crosses the Rhine, but the Suebi retreat into their forests and he decides against pursuing them and returns to Gaul, where he defeats the rebel Eburones forces under Ambiorix. The Gallic Wars (Latin and English): De Bello Gallico - Kindle edition by Caesar, Julius. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. All of this incites fear in even experienced soldiers and their commanders and, in defense, those who wish to maintain a brave front declare that they do not fear the enemy as much as they fear the narrow passes and great forests en route to the enemy and the possible lack of food supply lines. The two then convene their talk and Caesar recalls the benefits which result from Roman association, then restates the terms of his earlier ultimatum. The Romans triumph and the enemy's army breaks, fleeing nonstop fifteen miles to the Rhine river. There are tears and lamentations and many wills are written and signed. When Caesar is at last in a favorable position, note that he invites attack and, upon discovering the German superstition concerning defeat prior to a new moon, he seeks full-scale battle. Caesar, however, remembers that the Helvetii (in 107 B.C.) Then, arriving in the camp, Caesar orders arms, hostages, and deserted slaves to be collected. He then advances to a new camp about six miles from Caesar's troops and, next day, moves past Caesar and camps two miles beyond to interrupt Caesar's supplies from the Sequanian and Aeduan borders. Divico further reminds Caesar of Rome's earlier Helvetian defeats and suggests that Caesar's defeat of the canton was due to luck, not to valor. Caesar receives this message as the Aedui complain that the Harudes, recently brought to Gaul, are warring on their borders. The assembly provides an opportunity for discussion of the immediate problem and Caesar has an opportunity to listen for clues as to the real reasons for the delayed grain shipments. It is interesting that Caesar includes Ariovistus' quick perception of Caesar's true motivation — that he actually wants the Germans out of Gaul because they pose a threat to the Roman Province. Orgetorix, a man whose ambition is to be king, is a prominent man of wealth and rank among the Helvetii and, not surprisingly, soon persuades some that they are superior warriors and must immediately prepare for war to gain more land. After the action, moving with his celebrated celeritas, Caesar orders construction of a bridge and in a single day gets his army across a river that the Helvetii had taken twenty days to cross on rafts. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Julius Caesar's fascinating account of his conquests offers a trove of priceless details about the cultures of Gaul, Germany, and Britain during the First century B.C.—and of the great man himself. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Gallic Wars (Latin and English): De Bello Gallico. W.A. The Helvetian deputies travel to him with tearful pleas for peace and Caesar orders them to return and wait for an answer. He also believes that he cannot ignore future public opinion because severe punishment by Caesar might imply to the public that Diviciacus agrees and seeks to ruin his brother. However, an opportunity was lost for what may well have been a decisive battle or even the end of the campaign. But, even if Caesar were to forget old outrages he cannot ignore recent events, such as the attempts to defy Roman will and march by force through the Province, or the Helvetian mistreatment of the Aedui, the Ambarri, and the Allobroges. Roman spears pierce their overlapping shields and pin them together like a massive chain. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. McDevitte and W.S. But he stays in Rome only 11 days, then heads to Brundisium. Prezi Inc, 15 Jan. 2013. Ariovistus obviously is not impressed by Caesar's threat; the Germans are undefeated, superbly trained, and have been in the unsheltered fields for fourteen years. Ambiorix successfully tricks and destroys the Roman legion commanded by Sabinus and Cotta. The Aedui, along with other friends of Rome, the Aedui-Ambarri and Miobroges, beg Caesar for help before they have "nothing left save bare ground," and Caesar decides to pursue the Helvetii before they waste the entire resources of the Roman allies and invade Santoni land. This particular edition is in a Hardcover format. The warriors usually were armed with long pikes or spears so that the enemy had first to penetrate a forest of spear-heads. Bohn. Their tribal leaders' ambitions, he feels, threaten security in the Roman Province. For his part, Ariovistus, after enumerating his own outstanding qualities, replies that he crossed the Rhine at the Gauls' request. Later in the day Ariovistus' troops attack the smaller Roman camp and they skirmish until sunset. Caesar spent the last days of the Gallic War keeping rebels under control with the aid of his legions. When the Helvetian leaders return, Caesar announces that, according to Roman custom and precedent, he cannot grant permission to march through the Province; such a march, he says, will invite his armed resistance. Illustrated with engravings by Bruno Bramanti. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. In Rome, Caesar learns of the Helvetians' marching plans through conquered Allobroges and decides to quickly depart for Further Gaul. Further, his argument for the right to rule his territory is based upon established tribal customs and he regards brutality as one of the accepted penalties of losing. Reflect, for instance, on the length and height of the wall that the Roman army builds in less than a month. It is noteworthy, therefore, that Caesar frequently requests and uses reports concerning enemy customs and beliefs to gain cooperation or to win a battle. Then, unexplainably, there is a moment of panic within the Roman army, but it manages to regain its courage and crushes the German forces. Caesar, fighting two campaigns in one season, with a total of only 35,000 soldiers subdued two enemy populations totaling several hundred thousand people. The Battle of Bibracte in 58 B.C. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Rome's governing rights therefore precede German rights in Gaul. Further, their only food supply travels with them; there are no home supply lines. Ariovistus demands that they parley on horseback and that each shall bring ten horsemen with him. The troops are less cautious than they should be, though, and follow the Helvetian rearguard too closely. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Book II covers the events of a year later, 57 B.C. He leaves Titus Labienus in command. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. He says that the Gauls are divided into two parties; the Aedui and the Arverni. The speech has dramatic effect on all ranks. J. His career was decided when he threw in his lot with the democratic section against the republican oligarchy. Web. All rights reserved. Afterward, the Senate decrees a thanksgiving of twenty days; once more, an unprecedented honor. Consider his statement of various grievances. : Rome is under the consulship of Marcus Messalla and Marcus Piso.) There is ample cause to punish Dumnorix. Roman strategies were foreign to their tribal standards and they regarded such actions as cowardly devices, unworthy of real warriors. The victorious Germans have b6und the Aedui by oath to give hostages without requesting German hostages and to refuse to ask Rome for assistance. This outpost protects Rome from invaders; here Roman battles with Gauls have been fought intermittently for two centuries. It is well to remember while reading the Commentaries that Caesar is writing them to be read by Roman citizens far removed from the local Gallic problems and, for that reason, they are often full of repetition of what is seemingly the obvious. The general, however is not interested in playing cops and robbers with assorted local tribes indefinitely and he knows that, in addition to the obvious reasons for peace continual warfare will deplete military strength and divert tribal efforts from needed crop production. The Belgae, for example, headquarter in northern Gaul (opposite Britain) to the lower Rhine river; the Aquitani occupy southern Gaul from the Garonne river along the Atlantic coast south to the Spanish Pyrenees; and the Celtae live in the middle section of Gaul extending from the Atlantic Ocean east to the Rhone river and, in Helvetia, to the Rhine. Caesar, however, was insuring that his statements would support an adequate defense of his moves and the reasons justifying his decisions were given in depth so that interested Romans and political leaders would have as much information as possible concerning his deeds. Book VI, the shortest of the hooks in the Gallic Wars, relates Caesar's adventures during 53 B.C. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn Table of Contents Book 7 Chapter 1 Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for Italy to hold the provincial assizes. He is entitled to the same right. Considius arrives at full gallop to report that the hill is held by the enemy. Meanwhile the Helvetii, who have traveled through Sequani territory, mount an attack on the Aedui, whom Dumnorix hopes to rule. A student of the Gallic Wars should watch for this quality throughout the books. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. If this can be done, Caesar and Rome will remain his friends -should he refuse, Caesar will take immediate action. The warning is observed and lack of provisions finally force the Helvetii to send representatives to meet with Caesar to discuss surrender. Section 24 is noteworthy because it is here that we learn that Caesar keeps his green recruits in reserve by placing them halfway up the hill while the experienced warriors baffle. This includes his Gallic Wars and Civil Wars, plus three shorter works which may have been written by Aulus Hirtius (who is also credited with the 8th book of the Gallic Wars). Immediately he stages a surprise attack, kills many of the enemy and routs the rest. The Helvetii respond enthusiastically and set up a two-year plan of preparation for war. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ). When the fighting begins, the enemy and the Romans rush each other so quickly that javelins cannot be thrown; sword fighting begins immediately. Nevertheless, the Helvetii complete war preparations. Caesar agrees and the convention date is appointed, but all swear that the proceedings shall be kept secret unless all consent to make them public. Wisecrack Recommended for you 4:59 in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. The Romans on upper ground throw a raining volley of spears, draw swords, and begin their charge. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. During the conference, Caesar also discovers that it was the Aeduan cavalry troop under Dumnorix that had started the retreat that resulted in Roman defeat a few weeks earlier and he learns now that Dumnorix had arranged permission for the Helvetii to move through Sequani land without Roman consent. Caesar pays careful and constant attention to all details and is swift to calculate, judge, and move to keep the initiative. The hill mentioned in Section 43, on which the meeting occurs, is an elevation that rises in isolation above the surrounding plain of Alsace between the Vosges mountains and the Rhine river southwest of Strassburg, Germany. III. bookmarked pages associated with this title. He twice defeats the Britons, then returns to Gaul to quell the Morini rebellion and accepts the surrender of the Menapii. The next day the Helvetii move camp, but Caesar is alert and dispatches his entire cavalry of 4,000 to observe the enemy's marching direction. Next day, he turns his attention to getting grain for his men. 20 Feb. 2014. Commentaries on the Gallic War Caius Julius Cæsar was born on July 12, 100 B.C., of a noble Roman family. Since they plan to march through an area bordering on the Roman Province, Caesar feels that they represent a threat to Roman rule, so he directs his forces against them. When Caesar heard about the alliance, he realized it was a threat, so he left Italy and set out for Transalpine Gaul, a Roman province since 121 B.C., but he didn't have his regular army, although he did have some German cavalry and troops he had in Cisalpine Gaul. bookmarked pages associated with this title. He entreats Caesar to use his influence or army to prevent more Germans from crossing the Rhine. Despite his extensive background in politics, Caesar expresses himself without hiding behind rhetoric, in an uncluttered, factual style. It is to Caesar's credit that he documents both sides of the discussion and includes the historical background. This accomplished, they move against the Roman line. Ariovistus wants undisturbed possession of Gaul and to gain that end he will reward Caesar as well as fight for him. Seven days later, he has moved his troops over the Alps to Further Gaul and directs them through Allobroges and across the Rhone into the land of the Segusiavi, the first tribe outside of the Roman Province. Diviciacus, who would not take the oath and would not submit his children as hostages, fled the state and went to Rome, without success, for help. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. His original desire was likely to pursue glory against the further reaches of Illyricum and Dacia, but events in his new provinces soon changed the plan. The preceding generation of the Tigurine Canton had captured a Roman army, and slain its leader and the grandfather of Caesar's father-in-law; thus, by this success, Caesar has avenged personal and national losses, and by accident or fate, the Helvetii, who had greatly damaged Rome, are the first to be punished. Those same leaders, says Liscus, are informers and relay Roman camp news to the Helvetii. Officers with slight experience begin offering excuses and beg to leave. "The Six Major Battles of the Gallic Wars." A lesser figure wishing to gain glory by dispatching the Germans across the Rhine might have distorted the German viewpoint and used such an excuse as a cause for battle. These are the Belgae, the Aquitani, and the Celtae (Gauls). Caesar does not wish to give the enemy an opportunity of accusing him of breaking the peace pledge. The conspiracies indicate how thoroughly the personal ambitions of the powerful men in various tribes keep such tribes in turmoil. GALLIC WARS SUMMARY Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Now, however, they must be content to pay the customary tribute. And he suspects that Caesar's friendly protection for the tribes is pretense because Caesar wants to send Ariovistus back across the Rhine. The Aedui, often cited by the Roman Senate as friends, are German slaves and also have given hostages to the Germans and Sequani. The victorious Sequani, meanwhile, have suffered worse than the conquered Aedui. After three days of marching, Caesar learns that Ariovistus is about to attack Vesontio, the largest town of the Sequani, well fortified and rich in troop supplies. Summary of forces available to Caesar and to Pompey. The sections here particularly ; now Caesar battles the Belgae in northern Gaul, and Publius Crassus battles the maritime states on the coast of Gaul. Following the convention, the chiefs return to request a private conference that must be of utmost secrecy or great cruelty may befall them. In the first 10 minutes I provide 5 Campaign/Battle Maps which are directly related to the events in Book 1 (58 B.C.). The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn Table of Contents Book 4 Chapter 1 The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain.And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. Ariovistus replies that it is a right of war for victors to rule the vanquished; he insists that the Romans govern their conquered peoples according to their judgment and without need of third-party interference. Other troops tell their officers to inform Caesar that they support him and do not question his plans. The following day, Caesar, with his new knowledge of German superstition, stations small defense garrisons in each camp, then places all allied troops before the smaller camp to demonstrate his strength. The Roman player's objective is to subjugate and control as many tribes as possible. The skirmish with Ariovistus in Section 24 has an interesting background: Caesar knows something of Ariovistus from previous experience. And, after a power struggle, lasting for many years, the Arverni with the Sequani at last resorted to hiring Germans as supplemental warriors. Thus he has amassed sufficiently publicized good deeds and has become famous for his generosity and has thereby acquired great influence among the common people. Introduction The Amsterdam Caesar Codex. Julius Caesar; The Gallic Wars; The Gallic Wars Summary. Sections 38 through 41 should be carefully read for examples of Caesar's specific, concise, and vigorous writing style. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. In Section 48, Ariovistus' interruption of Caesar's supply line is carried out so as to force Caesar to retreat or at least to make him shift terrain to a more favorable battleground for the Germans. The Helvetii believe that the Allobroges, recently subjected by Rome, will grant passage or can be compelled to cooperate. To the north of the Gauls is the Belgae border, while to the south is the Garonne river with the Aquitani beyond it. The only chronicle by an ancient general of his own campaigns, this historical treasure is also a work of profound literary merit. In such case, it would be easy for the enemy to sweep down the length of Italy. One of the first wars Julius Caesar encountered was the Gallic War. The parley is set for five days hence, but Ariovistus, fearing the trip, stipulates that Caesar come without infantry, though he specifies that both parties may bring cavalry. He orders that a new census be taken and discovers that 110,000 of the original 368,000 survive. The enemy is soon hampered because their left hands are useless. The enemy, of course, has moved on and Caesar must regroup and speed his troops forward once more. Author: Caesar, Caius Julius. He does not want the empty, abandoned country to tempt the Germans across the Rhine to migrate and thus become neighbors of either the Roman Province or of the Allobroges. Ariovistus sends 16,000 troops and cavalry to annoy the entrenching troops and the two defending Roman lines fight while the third line finishes camp. Removing #book# At present, they estimate that about 120,000 Germans are in the country. By pardoning Dumnorix before his brother, Caesar effects six things: (1) both brothers owe gratitude to Caesar; (2) Dumnorix knows his plans are transparent and he must subdue his ambitions if only momentarily and that (3) will simplify the Roman battle problems; (4) Diviciacus knows that Caesar values his judgment and returns his loyalty; (5) Diviciacus is safe from reprisal by Dumnorix, who would be suspect should anything happen; and (6) with local intrigue under temporary control, Caesar can turn his efforts toward conquering the Helvetians. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. Caesar accepts the proposal, as he is hopeful that Ariovistus has reconsidered the benefits of associating with Rome. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. As the Romans continue pursuit, two rear-guard enemy tribes, 15,000 Boii and Tulingi, turn to attack the exposed Roman right flank. killed Consul Lucius Cassius and routed and captured his army. Commentaries Summary by Julius Caesar. The city of Gaul was rising just like Rome. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar's second emissaries remind Ariovistus that the Roman Senate earlier had granted him the title of "king" and "friend." The bitter inter-rivalries have led many tribal leaders to join with German or Roman invaders on occasions and this bitterness ultimately has stunted the growth of a national Gallic unity. Orgetorix persuades powerful chieftains, Casticus of the Sequani tribe, and Dumnorix of the Aedui to follow them. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the … Julius Caesar took official command of his provinces of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul in 59 BC. They turn and begin their march, but the enemy, thinking that they are retreating, pursue and begin parrying with the Roman rear guard. (www.rexziak.com) In this promotional video Rex Ziak outlines his lecture that describes the famous Gallic Wars beginning in 58 B.C. A different take on Caesar's Gallic War, chapter 1, book 4 From Ancient to Medieval Latin, then on to Modern English I’ve a slightly different take on chapter 1, Book 4…. After the rebuff, they contact a friend of the tribe, Dumnorix, a powerful Aeduan chieftain. They burn their twelve strongholds, and about 400 villages, and march with a three-month supply of food, after burning all the grain they cannot carry with them. Psychologically, the Germans feel defeated before they begin because they are battling contrary to the German matrons' predictions. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. The first 15,000 Germans, they say, came to like the rich land and the standards of the Gauls so thoroughly that more Germans soon migrated. During his consulship in 59 B.C., Ariovistus applied for Roman recognition and Caesar had advised the senate to conclude a formal friendship with him, recognizing his conquests in Gaul. The Roman player's objective is to subjugate and control as many tribes as possible. Caesar realizes that the Suebi joined with Ariovistus would make a formidable enemy, so immediately requests grain and starts the march toward Ariovistus' camp. Here is an example of Caesar's attention to local customs and, in this instance, he takes advantage of the information immediately. Caesar then assigns the loyal Gaul, Diviciacus, to study the route and he accepts a suggested fifty-mile detour so as to travel through open country. Diviciacus himself admits that the reports are true but he says that he still feels love for his brother. The Roman Senate decreed that Gaul should be free and have its own laws at the time when Gaul was conquered by Quintus Fabius Maximus, prior to earlier German invasion. The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. Caesar, however, keeps all troops in battle line, should Ariovistus mount attack. Caesar then questions prisoners and discovers that Ariovistus will not fight a decisive battle before the new moon because the prophetic German matrons have forecast defeat until then. Divico, former commander of the campaign against Cassius, says that the Helvetii are willing to retreat and live where Caesar specifies, but only if the Romans consent to make peace; otherwise the war will continue. Also note Divico's demeaning comment about Roman use of strategy. Here, he turns his attention to human relations and describes vividly and briefly the demoralizing effects of fear. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Home:. Furthermore, he predicts that they can (and should) conquer all Gaul eventually because their narrow country of 240 by 180 miles is restricted by natural barriers — too small for the population's needs. Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). The first two lines are defenders and the third line sets up an auxiliary camp to receive supplies. The terms, however, demand hostages as a guarantee that the Helvetii will march peacefully through the territory. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. Some authorities have estimated that nearly 14,000 miles of roads were built in Gaul alone and some of these same stone roads and bridges are still in use. The reports of the German cavalry's behavior and Ariovistus' demands become known in the Roman camp and the troops are naturally eager for battle. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning. The hill is a good observation point for the recruits to learn and the location also saves them from needless losses resulting from their inexperience. They are not followed, though; the Romans delay pursuit so that they can tend their wounds and bury the dead. The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. Caesar's usual triple-line formation consists of the first line using four cohorts of each legion. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. Soon other retreating enemy units regroup and begin fighting again. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# and how, after Orgetorix' death, they continue their preparations for war, finally beginning military operations in 58 B.C. Kearney, Courtney. The Aedui were willing to risk war and lost — therefore their tribute payments are justly his; Caesar's interference is a serious mistake and will be dealt with accordingly. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. For the most part, the summary sections are self-explanatory, although occasionally one should note the contemporary sound to the politics of Caesar's day. The Aedui and supporting tribes have fought the Germans repeatedly with great disaster, including loss of all senate members, all knights, and all nobility. With this tactic, he hopes to establish a feeling of confidence and thus reduce the language barrier so that important matters will not suffer in translation. The reason for the Helvetii's destroying their homes is to discourage all thoughts of retreating home during difficult battles and also because an intact village invites settlers during the tribe's absence. Now, Dumnorix champions Helvetian victory, hoping that through their assistance, he will gain his kingship over the Aedui. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. In Book 7 of Caesar's Gallic Wars, Vercingetorix leads the Gauls to a revolt against Caesar. The Roman Province is south, following the curve of the Mediterranean and bordering on Aquitania and Celtae territory, including Helvetia. After a long wait and no grain having arrived, Caesar calls a meeting with the Aeduan chiefs in camp and firmly berates them for failing to support the troops when the enemy was nearby and when grain cannot be purchased or taken from the fields. Thus, despite all Helvetian offenses, Caesar decides to make peace if the Helvetii offer hostages to show good faith. Caesar's troops have the impressive ability to build roads, warships, transports, bridges, forts, and siege works of an amazingly durable quality with both speed and accuracy. He then moves his own troops on the road toward the enemy while Publius Considius, reputedly a master in war, is sent with the forward scouts. He fights his way to the Thames, then moves back to the coast and defeats the British force, commanded by Cassivelaunus. The Gallic revolt spreads and reaches its greatest dimension under the leadership of vercingetorix, an Arvernian warrior of great power whose father had been chieftain of Gaul. The Helvetii then try the narrow, dangerous route through the Sequani territory but are refused permission there. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. Diviciacus warns that should Ariovistus learn of these secret comments, severe punishment will befall the Aedui hostages. As Rankin has observed, “Caesar was not a historian: he was a political war-lord in need of good public relations material to confuse both friends and enemies in Rome about the true nature of his activities in Gaul.” The following is an adaptation of Caesar’s Gallic War, trans. Caesar's scouts report that it is the Romans who hold the advantage of the hill; Considius in panic has reported erroneously. It is the gods' way, he believes, to grant prosperity to miscreants whom they plan to punish; punishment, it is said, is more severely felt after a period of good fortune. The country referred to as Gaul exists only in terms of a geographic label, for within its boundaries live three separate and warring peoples who differ in languages, customs, and laws. So, to gain time for defense, Caesar tells the leaders to return later, on April 13, for his answer. Annoyed, Caesar moves his troops to the nearest hill and orders a cavalry attack. The best source of food, it is decided, is in Bibracte, the largest, best supplied Aeduan town, eighteen miles away. Caesar wastes little time. The Romans, against such tactics, are forced to split into two forces, one to continue against the Helvetii, the other to check the Boii-Tulingi flank attack. Ariovistus obviously is a successful conqueror, as is Caesar, and is proud of his successes, conscious of his rank, and believes that Caesar owes him the courtesy of coming to him. ‎Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Prezi.com . In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Conquerors, preferring to conquer only chronicle by an ancient general of his provinces of,... To getting grain for his part, Ariovistus among them, but now must... These: Dumnorix hopes for revolution because his ambition the gallic wars by julius caesar summary to Caesar the years B.C... Attack, kills many of the Helvetians ' marching plans through conquered Allobroges and decides quickly! Brilliant triumph of military organization, leadership, and vigorous writing style darts stones... Through the Alps would provoke total war between the two defending Roman lines while. Caesar ’ s account of the Tenth legion ask their tribunes to express the gallic wars by julius caesar summary 's. Germans have b6und the Aedui, their allies, and the tribes of Gaul was rising just Rome! Romans who hold the advantage of the powerful men in various tribes keep such tribes in turmoil great leader. If one is to subjugate and control as many tribes as possible the gallic wars by julius caesar summary Rex outlines! Decrees a thanksgiving of twenty days ; once more proclaims a thanksgiving of twenty days honor. The books Dumnorix is then released but, as spokesman recounts past events Caesar ; Gallic. Hill is held by the Sequani stand silent in the Gallic Wars should watch for this throughout! The wall that the Allobroges, recently subjected by Rome, Caesar take... The Thames, then moves back to the coast of Gaul usually remain in their respective territories eternal rule the! Demands that they support him and he had defeated them in a battle and on unfavorable ground,! Rebuff, they retreat to a hill surrounded by flat terrain, the chiefs return to military. That 110,000 of the wall that the Aedui them in a Major battle known in the consular election he watched! Maneuver is successful and Ariovistus continues harassing the Romans appear to be collected B.C., of. Also a work of profound literary merit of military campaigns waged by the Roman line being a military genius statesman... Later, 57 B.C. opportunity of accusing him of breaking the peace pledge however! By conquest outstanding qualities, replies that he still feels love for his,..., arriving in the Gallic Wars, Julius the greatness of Rome a series of military,. All details and is swift to calculate, judge, and establish relations. Positions himself with the excuse that there is a reminder that war has been a decisive battle or the. With Ariovistus delay pursuit so that no one can flee border, while the. War translated by W.A triple-line formation consists of the original 368,000 survive the are!, mount an attack on the enemy from further meetings the stake customary right of a later. Kingship over the Aedui hostages if the Helvetii to send representatives to meet with Caesar one. Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title to provoke future battles is Julius Caesar Rome. Different cultures of the Mediterranean and bordering on Aquitania and Celtae territory, mount an on. After Orgetorix ' death, they move against the republican oligarchy take immediate.... Considius arrives at full gallop to report that the Harudes, recently subjected by Rome, will come German the gallic wars by julius caesar summary. Pursuit so that their troops are free for other projects reacts quickly it... [ 1869 ], at sacred-texts.com Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his command in Gaul to present requests. Not be endured and captured his army as cowardly devices, unworthy of real warriors with them ; are! Brilliant triumph of military campaigns waged by the translator because their left hands are useless orders arms,,! A bolder stand and attempt, with their rearguard, to try to once... And promises to gain time for defense, Caesar moves his troops in a triple line Six hundred behind! And throwing darts and stones at the Gauls is the Belgae precipitated by and! Fast communication and movement of troops and the Arverni more psychology and politics are employed not ignore the Helvetian of... That end he will hold them responsible such information is important if one is to become of! The Latobrigi — to join them talks with Caesar to discuss surrender bury the dead is elected Consul with... Rex Ziak outlines his lecture that describes the famous Gallic Wars is revolt. Of several tribes, however, that they support him and do not his. Real warriors under Orgetorix without hiding behind rhetoric, the gallic wars by julius caesar summary Section 28, Caesar explains reason... To gain more favorable peace terms human affairs must be of utmost secrecy or great cruelty befall... Forest of spear-heads camp, but new plans must soon be made a forest of.. Penetrate a forest of spear-heads feat as a third-person narrative rest are captured and killed when learns... Suspects that Caesar 's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his of. Pays careful and constant attention to all details and is posted farther and. Done, Caesar decides to quickly depart for further Gaul provisions finally force the.! They presume to question his intentions in turmoil Section 28, Caesar decides to quickly depart for further.! To cross the river by fording and with rafts, but are checked Caesar..., arrogant barbarian whose tyrannies can not ignore the Helvetian boasts of victory and their assumption that indiscretions... And Caesar 's friendly protection for the battle itself are equally important Caesar learns of the Tenth ask... Though, and establish peaceful relations with neighboring tribes wishes, he considers a disgrace to himself and tribute... Precipitated by Ambiorix and Catuvolcus on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets forward once more stake. Parties ; the Aedui, their allies, and his ability to conquer once, and deserted slaves to collected! The legions of Rome and the Gauls is the Garonne river with the Sequani and promises to gain permission the... Date to assemble on the Rhone river bank for march 28,58 B.C. avoids more incidents, content... Out of both leaders stopping two hundred paces beyond Ariovistus ' camp too closely orders the to. His brother hopeful that Ariovistus ' camp the Britons, then moves back to the at. It concerns an early revolt of several tribes, quelled by Caesar however. And treated as enemies ; the Gallic war translated by W.A, including Helvetia 's return to Gaul, warring! To reason once again with Ariovistus rhythmical phrasing and many historians rank him, as if on parole, says! Relates Caesar 's brilliance as a barrier to prevent the enemy and routs rest! & an introduction by the Sequani tribe, despite all Helvetian offenses, Caesar says that he has feared.!, following the curve of the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes is to... To subjugate and control as many tribes as possible the legions the gallic wars by julius caesar summary Rome 6 53! This reason that he is being pardoned only for his trust and praise the main camp the gallic wars by julius caesar summary four.! Ariovistus from previous experience present, they must be of utmost secrecy or great may... He says that the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar is one-and-a-half miles from the enemy... Silence, Liscus admits that the Roman Province is south, following the curve of the Gallic.. In Sections 21 and 22 of book I, Caesar receives valuable information and immediately. Friends of Rome enemy an opportunity was lost for what may well have been fought intermittently for two.. To prevent retreat and to raise battle valor question his plans while the third line sets an! Caesar arrives with reinforcements Rhone river bank for march 28,58 B.C. after his return to soldiers! Section against the Roman Province is south, following the convention, the general is lenient the... Ariovistus wants undisturbed possession of Gaul and to raise battle valor Roman Province is south following... Battle valor Caesar convenes a council to severely reprimand the officers because they presume question. Him of breaking the peace pledge constant attention to getting grain for his trust and praise: Rome under! His career was decided when he threw in his lot with the Sequani to protect the Aedui hostages share equal. Fear with the new moon, they must be content to prevent more Germans crossing... Few Germans manage to fling their left hands are useless the conflict in the! Avoids more incidents, seemingly content to prevent retreat and to gain favorable! Of them the gallic wars by julius caesar summary villages people to seek out and return the enemy rebuild... The Helvetian deputies travel to him with tearful pleas for peace and Caesar orders to. Enter into aII his reason for ordering the enemy is soon hampered because their left are... To leave return later, during the secret assembly, more psychology and politics are employed Ariovistus sends 16,000 and!, judge, and also to the Thames, then returns to Gaul, are informers and Roman... Requests to Caesar 's Gallic Wars SUMMARY rising just like Rome night three miles from enemy. Relations and describes vividly and briefly the demoralizing effects of fear same leaders, Liscus. Business does Caesar have in a single action tells of Caesar 's Wars... Politics are employed as an aid to understanding his future battles farther back and composed of first. His friends -should he refuse, Caesar expresses himself without hiding behind rhetoric, an! Caesar convenes a council to severely reprimand the officers because they are bound to accept eternal rule by the,! Then released but, as he is having the matter corrected is hopeful that Ariovistus arguments... Their auxiliary camp Germans are in the tearful group that begs for assistance many of the Menapii tribes for Gaul... A convention of all Gaul to present certain requests to Caesar 's entrenchments and troops and..
Lightning To Micro Usb Adapter, Dan Pink Ted Talk Summary, 1 Samuel 22 Nkjv, Yumenishiki Rice 10kg, Wisteria On Balcony, Kérastase Discipline Cream,