As one might expect, she succeeded. [57][58][59] Feeding as little as 6.25 g dry nettle per kg feed is as effective as the synthetic pigments to colour the egg yolk. It may be that the act of rubbing a dock leaf against a nettle sting acts as a distracting counterstimulation, or that belief in the dock's effect provides a placebo effect. For Radiant Look. Stinging nettle, or Urtica dioica, is an herbaceous perennial that thrives in wet climates and moist soils. Habits/Habitats. Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is found throughout Eurasia, North America, and northern Africa, and has been introduced to parts of South America. The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. Nettle has high carotenoid contents, especially lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin, of which lutein and zeaxanthin act as yellow pigments. Originally native to Europe, nettles can … gracilis) is native, while the other (U. dioica ssp. They also often grow in masses, forming a monoculture. Stinging nettle rash presents as raised bumps or hives that are often light in color and up to a centimeter in diameter. It spreads by abundant seeds and also by rhizomes, and is often able to survive and re-establish quickly after fire. Nettle leaf tea is derived from the leaves of the common nettle plant, also known as the stinging nettle. [74], Dioica is derived from Greek, meaning 'of two houses' (having separate staminate and pistillate plants; dioecious). [34] Nettle soup is a common use of the plant, particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe. 1 part dried stinging nettle leaves (see below for how to obtain) 1 part dried rose hips with seeds removed 1 part dried mint leaves honey (optional) PREPARATION. Stinging nettle, or Urtica dioica, is a common plant that grows in the United States, Canada, and Europe. [54] The native species can be recognized in that male and female flowers appear on a single plant (monoecious), and the plant has only sparse stinging hairs, especially on the stem. dioica).Both are common, especially in disturbed areas. The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. [22], In Great Britain and Ireland, the stinging nettle (U. dioica subsp. Formerly, more species were recognised than are now accepted. dioica) is introduced. Formerly, more species were recognised than are now accepted. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. INGREDIENTS. [28] However, in 2011, an early Bronze Age burial cist on Whitehorse Hill,[29][30] Dartmoor, Devon was excavated. [5][6] The plant has a long history of use as a source for traditional medicine, food, tea, and textile raw material in ancient societies such as the Saxons. [54] For exact fatty acid contents see Table 1. Stinging hairs, or trichomes, grow on stems and leaves. Stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) historically has been used for urinary complaints, and the AHP Therapeutic Compendium provides a critical review of both the traditional and scientific data.Dr Sigrun Chrubasik, the primary author of the therapeutics section, which addresses pharmacology and clinical research, is an expert in clinical botanical medicine research and has published … [53], Carotenoids can be found primarily in the leaves, where different forms of lutein, xanthophyll and carotene are present (Table 2). Nettle was believed to be a galactagogue – a substance that promotes lactation. Heiko Bellmann: Der Neue Kosmos Schmetterlingsführer, Schmetterlinge, Raupen und Futterpflanzen, pg. Stinging nettle has been used as a vegetable and folk remedy since ancient times. Stinging nettle is protected by needle-like projections that easily inject irritating substances into the skin. [40][41], Alcoholic beer can be made from young nettles. The European subspecies has been introduced into Australia, North America and South America.[10][11]. Standard deviations are given in brackets. The leaves and young stems of this herbaceous plant are fitted with stinging hairs tipped with formic acid and other irritants. The skin surrounding the hives may be red. Since nettles prefer to grow in phosphorus-rich and nitrogen rich soils that have recently been disturbed (and thus aerated), the growth of nettles is an indicator that an area has high fertility (especially phosphate and nitrate), and thus is an indicator to gardeners as to the quality of the soil. [1][7], Urtica dioica is a dioecious, herbaceous, perennial plant, 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 ft) tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter. Modern research demonstrates that it possesses an It can often form dense clusters. The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs, and in most subspecies, also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes or spicules), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that can inject several chemicals causing a painful sting or paresthesia, giving the species its common names: stinging nettle, burn nettle, burn weed, or burn hazel.[3][5][4]. Our loose leaf Organic Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica), also known as stinging nettle, is a perennial member of the Urticaceae family grown in Vermont, USA. The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base, and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. [31] In its peak season, nettle contains up to 25% protein, dry weight, which is high for a leafy green vegetable. It has hairs that cause reactions lasting for weeks. In the East and Midwest, American stinging nettle occurs as far south as Virginia, Missouri, and Kansas; in the West, it occurs south along the coast to central California and south in the Rocky Mountains to Mexico. The two annual species grow from a taproot and are erect. U. d. gracilis is generally a northern plant, growing in the Rockies, up into Alaska and throughout Canada. U. dioica has a flavour similar to spinach mixed with cucumber when cooked, and is rich in vitamins A and C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. Tiny greenish flowers grow in dense drooping clusters at the leaf axils (where the leaf arises from the stem). The spell could be broken only if the princess made each brother a coat from nettles and didn’t utter a word the whole time she was doing it. gracilis) and European (Urtica dioica ssp. In Dutch, a netelige situatie means a predicament. Some claim that the term "nettle" refers to the plant’s needle-like sting, while others trace the word’s origin to the plant’s use for weaving, hence the term "nettle" or "net-plant." [57], Ruminants avoid fresh stinging nettles, however if the nettles are wilted or dry, voluntary intake can be high. Feeding nettle has no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying hens or the general egg quality. Most stings require no treatment other than time. Competitors are given 60 cm (24 in) stalks of the plant, from which they strip the leaves and eat them. Nettles can be used in a variety of recipes, such as polenta, pesto, and purée. There is a common idea in Great Britain that the nettle was introduced by the Romans. [citation needed], Nettles have a number of other uses in the vegetable garden, including the potential for encouraging beneficial insects. Stinging nettles are edible, especially when young; they can be boiled and substituted for spinach. Contains Many Nutrients. The flowers are greenish; they are very small but numerous. How to pronounce stinging nettle. The nettle has sharp hairs on its leaves. Giving nettles a quick turn in a pan with a bit of oil and garlic isn't the … Nettles contain nitrogenous compounds, so are used as a compost activator[63] or can be used to make a liquid fertilizer, which although low in phosphate, is useful in supplying magnesium, sulphur, and iron. Stinging nettle’s leaves and root provide a wide variety of nutrients, … Non-stinging hairs are soft and flexible. [33] The leaves are also dried and may then be used to make a herbal tea, as can also be done with the nettle's flowers. Nettle leaves have long been used fresh as a wild food in spring and then dried for its beneficial properties. Caterpillars, including those of the painted lady, the red admiral and the satyr comma, consume the leaves. The scientific name for this plant is Urtica dioica. A Native American stinging nettle and squash soup recipe, provided by the Northwest Indian College, consists of stinging nettles, acorn squash, broth, garlic, onion and oil. In Denmark, burial shrouds made of nettle fabrics have been discovered that date back to the Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC). [50] Fibre varieties are normally cloning varieties and therefore planted from vegetative propagated plantlets. General information on stinging nettle plants. [23] In Seán O'Casey's Juno and the Paycock, one of the characters quotes Aesop "Gently touch a nettle and it'll sting you for your pains/Grasp it as a lad of mettle and soft as silk remains". [31] Soaking stinging nettles in water or cooking removes the stinging chemicals from the plant, which allows them to be handled and eaten without injury. This is a bit of a misnomer considering that both sexes of flowers for our subspecies generally grow on the same plant. However, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species: The cist dated from between 1730 and 1600 BC. Seeds contain much more fatty acid than leaves.[54]. You can also use nettle for your skin as its astringent property not only helps … Some carotenes are precursors of vitamin A (retinol), their retinol equivalents RE or retinol activity equivalents per g dry weight are 1.33 for mature leaves and 0.9 for young leaves. dioica. Gracilenta means "slender," and dioica is derived from "dioecious," the term used to describe species in which male and female flowers grow on different plants. More recently, companies in Austria, Germany, and Italy have started to produce commercial nettle textiles. However, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species: Other species' names formerly accepted as distinct by some authors but now regarded as synonyms of one or other subspecies include U. breweri, U. californica, U. cardiophylla, U. lyalli, U. major, U. procera, U. serra, U. strigosissima, U. trachycarpa, and U. viridis. [64][65] They are also one of the few plants that can tolerate, and flourish in, soils rich in poultry droppings. Stinging nettles most often appear in Native American legends as comic relief, with the bumbling arrogance of a trickster character (or the gullible stupidity of one of his victims) ending in an ignominious tumble into the nettles. (It's Free. dioica) is the only common stinging plant and has found a place in several figures of speech in the English language. Originally native to Europe, much of temperate Asia and western North Africa,[1] it is now found worldwide, including New Zealand[2] and North America. Stinging nettle also appears in indigenous folklore, often being associated with coyote, suggesting that nettle is the trickster of the plant world. - -. Humanity has been using the nettles for thousands of years. [43] Urtication, or flogging with nettles is the process of deliberately applying stinging nettles to the skin to provoke inflammation. Cambridge University Press. Their deep, earthy flavor always reminds me of rich soil, damp from winter and ready to burst forth with new plants now that spring is here. It is believed to be most beneficial to consume nettle for hair. When brushed, the tip of the trichome breaks off, leaving a sharp, hypodermic needle-like point that injects chemical irritants into the skin. [37][38] Similarly, in Greece the tender leaves are often used, after simmering, as a filling for hortopita, which is similar to spanakopita, but with wild greens rather than spinach for filling. The Chia Café Collective makes this tasty medley of stinging nettle and other teas for our workshops, classes, and demonstrations. [53] Nettle contains much less carotenes and retinol than carrots, which contain 8.35 RE per g fresh weight. Boiling the nettle destroys the irritant quality. How to say stinging nettle. Table 2: Carotenoid concentration of leaves of U. dioica (μg/ g dry weight). In New York there are two very similar subspecies of tall perennial stinging nettles, American (Urtica dioica ssp. The roots are sometimes eaten by the larva of the ghost moth (Hepialus humuli). Primarily called stinging nettle or nettle, Urtica dioica is a member of the family Urticaceae and is native to Europe and Eurasia. [44], In indigenous justice systems in Ecuador, urtication was used as punishment for severe crimes in 2010. The stinging nettle is a plant found practically all over the world. Desert Geological Terms, Mojave Desert Wildflowers Book [54] Whoever strips and eats the most stinging nettle leaves in a fixed time is the winner. [53][57] Nettle contains ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pantothenic acid, vitamin K1[53] and tocopherols (vitamin E). In reality, Native American people knew perfectly well how to avoid being stung by nettle plants and in fact, how to eat them safely in salads (by boiling the … Urtica and urens are both derived from the Latin "uro," meaning to burn. The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building, and can also indicate soil fertility. The root and above ground parts are used as medicine. [5][16][17][18][19] Anti-itch drugs, usually in the form of creams containing antihistamines or hydrocortisone, may provide relief from nettle dermatitis. tall nettle. Roman soldiers in England did the same thing to help them better adapt to the cold, damp climate. U. d. gracilis is the only perennial of the three. In French, the idiom faut pas pousser mémé dans les orties (don't push grandma in the nettles) means that we should be careful not to abuse a situation. Food: Stinging nettle (U. dioica) young shoots and tender top leaves can be gathered (using gloves) and dried for a potherb. Facts Stinging nettle occurs in New England as two subspecies, one (Urtica dioica ssp. A relative of stinging nettles in Australia grows to over 120 feet in height. Different species flower from spring to fall. U. d. gracilis has the least hairy stems; they have a bulbous base and a stiff translucent apex. It has been introduced to many other parts of the world. Herbaceous with stinging and non-stinging hairs and with simple or branched stems that can grow to about nine feet high. [45], Nettle stems contain a bast fibre that has been traditionally used for the same purposes as linen and is produced by a similar retting process. The area of … People have used stinging nettles for rheumatism, upset stomach, fevers, colds, paralysis and numerous other ailments. It grows in abundance in the Pacific Northwest, especially in places where annual rainfall is high. [20] Dock leaves, which often grow in similar habitats, are regarded as a folk remedy to counteract the sting of a nettle,[21] although there is no evidence of any chemical effect. GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : American stinging nettle is the most common subspecies in temperate North America and occurs throughout Canada and much of the United States. Stinging nettle is a plant. Standard deviations are given in brackets. An agent thus used was considered to be a rubefacient (something that causes redness), used as a folk remedy for treating rheumatism. The plant gets its name from the Latin word uro meaning “I burn.” If not handled properly you can end up with a burning rash. In laying hens, nettle can be used as an egg yolk colorant instead of artificial pigments or other natural pigments (derived from marigold for yellow). A nettle tea helped clear the lungs. Due to the variable fibre content, the fibre yields vary between 0.2 and 7 dt / ha, but the yields are normally in the range between 2 and 4 dt / ha. [1] It is abundant in northern Europe and much of Asia, usually found in the countryside. It bears small, greenish or brownish, numerous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences. If you see a group of such plants, look for those noxious bristly hairs along the stems of the plants and on the undersides of their leaves. It is found across New Mexico and in the easternmost part of Arizona. Plants are generally scattered and overlooked until brushed against. In North America, it is widely distributed in Canada and the United States, where it is found in every province and state except for Hawaii, and also can be found in northernmost Mexico. Nettles earn their name from the tiny hairs found on the leaves and stems that cause a stinging sensation upon contact with skin. Urtica dioica is an herbaceous perennial in the Urticaceae family. Description: Although they can reach greater heights, stinging nettles usually grow to about three to four feet tall. Leaves of all species are opposite, toothed, up to two inches long, and generally oval, elliptic or narrowly heart shaped. Sautéed Stinging Nettles. Contrary to its name, this dried organic herbal tea does not sting like the fresh leaves do! It contained various high value beads as well as fragments of a sash made from nettle fibre. Like the other two species, U. urens has limited distribution in the desert, occurring only in Arizona along the Gila River. Sign up below or read more about the DesertUSA newsletter here. Gledhill, David (2008). Nettles are sometimes used in cheesemaking, for example in the production of Cornish Yarg[35] and as a flavouring in varieties of Gouda. U. gracilenta occurs at higher elevations (3900 to 8250 feet) along shaded streams in alluvial soils. The leaves have distinctly serrated edges, with each leaf margin looking like a row of pointed teeth. The flowers grow alon… [61][62][failed verification]. [68], The stinging nettle can also be grown in controlled-environment agriculture systems, such as soil-less medium cultivations or aeroponics, which may achieve higher yields, standardize quality, and reduce harvesting costs and contamination. Listen to the audio pronunciation in the Cambridge English Dictionary. The sentenced perpetrator of a crime was flogged with stinging nettle, in public, naked, whilst being showered with freezing cold water. Other subspecies of U. dioica are dioecious, however. [32] After the stinging nettle enters its flowering and seed-setting stages, the leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths, which can irritate the urinary tract. In Hungarian, the idiom csalánba nem üt a mennykő, the thunderbolt does not strike into nettle, means bad people escape trouble or the devil looks after his own. Nettle herb is a somewhat plain-looking plant, but if you happen to brush by a one it will jump out and demand your attention. [51], Nettles may be used as a dye-stuff, producing yellow from the roots, or yellowish green from the leaves. [3][4] The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation upon contact ("contact urticaria", a form of contact dermatitis). Stinging nettles are tricky to handle, but a brief exposure to heat tames these prickly vines into super flavorful greens—sort of like if spinach had an older brother who came home from college. Three species of stinging nettles grow in the American southwest: Urtica dioica (subspecies, Urtica dioica gracilis), Urtica gracilenta and Urtica urens. As luck would have it, I also picked the North American nettle that stings the worse, Urtica chamaedryoides (UR-tee-ka kam-ee-dree-OY-deez) which is a combination of Dead Latin and Living Greek that means “burning dwarf.” Modern Greeks call the nettle Tsouknida.. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); DesertUSA Newsletter -- We send articles on hiking, camping and places to explore, as well as animals, wildflower reports, plant information and much more. Shakespeare's Hotspur urges that "out of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety" (Henry IV, part 1, Act II Scene 3). Urtica dioica is considered to be native to Europe, much of temperate Asia and western North Africa. [74], "Stinging nettle" redirects here. [5] The term, contact urticaria, has a wider use in dermatology, involving dermatitis caused by various skin irritants and pathogens. [12] Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate[13] and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles. 200 color photos, Wildflower Field Guide - find flowers by color, Home  | About | Contact Us | Feedback | Privacy | Site Outline | Advertising on DesertUSA |, Copyright © 1996-2020 DesertUSA.com and Digital West Media, Inc. The invasive U. urens is a classic weed with the widest habitat requirements, sprouting near old dwellings, waste areas and other disturbed sites, generally at elevations below 2300 feet. The soft, green leaves are 3 to 15 cm (1 to 6 in) long and are borne oppositely on an erect, wiry, green stem. L) Powder or Essential Oil", "Compost Teas vs Other Teas and Extracts", "Potential for Greenhouse Aeroponic Cultivation of Urtica Dioica", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urtica_dioica&oldid=991655747, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with failed verification from March 2015, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Growing seedlings: For this technique pre-germinated seeds are sown between mid-/end-February and beginning of April and grown in, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 04:32. It is less widespread in southern Europe and north Africa, where it is restricted by its need for moist soil, but is still common. During the middle ages, monks supposedly flagellated themselves with nettle for penance. Learn more. Direct seeding is possible, but leads to great heterogeneity in maturity. [73], Urtica is derived from a Latin word meaning 'sting'. The plant is considered an herbaceous perennial, meaning that it has herbal properties and grows back in the same areas year after year. The North American Deserts A stew or soup containing a handful of dried nettle can provide hair follicles with nutrients such as potassium, iron, vitamin A and vitamins C from the inside. [15], Urtica dioica produces its inflammatory effect on skin (stinging, burning sensation often called "contact urticaria") both by impaling the skin via spicules – causing mechanical irritation – and by biochemical irritants, such as histamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, among other chemicals. It is also eaten by the larvae of some moths including angle shades, buff ermine, dot moth, the flame, the gothic, grey chi, grey pug, lesser broad-bordered yellow underwing, mouse moth, setaceous Hebrew character, and small angle shades. Stinging Nettle also known as Urtica dioica is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant reaching heights of seven feet tall when placed in sunny damp soil (2). Although nutritious, it is not widely eaten by either wildlife or livestock, presumably because of the sting. Minerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, S, Cl) and trace elements (Ti, 80 ppm,[55] Mn, Cu, Fe) contents depend mostly on the soil and the season. In the Hans Christian Anderson story, "The Wild Swans," the 11 brothers of a fair princess were trapped by an evil spell in the bodies of swans. Native Americans helped themselves stay awake at night with a quick flagellation or two. The metaphor may refer to the fact that if a nettle plant is grasped firmly rather than brushed against, it does not sting so readily, because the hairs are crushed down flat and do not penetrate the skin so easily.[24]. The name urticaria for hives comes from the Latin name of nettle (Urtica, from urere, to burn). Today, it can be found all over the world, but its origins are in the colder regions of Europe and Asia. The top baby leaves are selected and simmered, then mixed with other ingredients such as herbs and rice, before being used as a filling between dough layers. The English word 'nettled', meaning irritated or angry, is derived from 'nettle'.[26]. [36], Nettles are used in Albania as part of the dough filling for the börek. [46], Historically, nettles have been used to make clothing for almost 3,000 years, as ancient nettle textiles from the Bronze Age have been found in Denmark. stinging nettle. In more recent decades, freeze dried nettle has dominated the market for its use in alleviating symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis. [66] U. dioica can be a troubling weed, and mowing can increase plant density. Stinging nettle, (Urtica dioica), also called common nettle, weedy perennial plant of the nettle family (Urticaceae), known for its stinging leaves. [27] The idea was mentioned by William Camden in his book Britannia of 1586. The plant usually grows between two to four feet high and blooms from June to September. Dried and added to food, nettle contains around 40% protein which can help improve the condition of hair. Unlike cotton, nettles grow easily without pesticides. [3] It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow, as are the roots. The competition dates back to 1986, when two neighbouring farmers attempted to settle a dispute about which had the worst infestation of nettles. [47] German Army uniforms were almost all made from nettle during World War I due to a potential shortage of cotton. European Stinging Nettle . The fibres are coarser, however. [52], Fresh leaves contain approximately 82.4% water, 17.6% dry matter, 5.5% protein, 0.7 to 3.3% fat, and 7.1% carbohydrates. U. d. gracilis has much broader requirements, growing from sea level to over 9000 feet in moist woodlands and in disturbed habitats such as fence rows, orchards and gardens. Table 1: Fatty acid content of different plant organs of U. "The Names of Plants". [67], Three cultivation techniques can be used for the stinging nettle: 1) direct sowing, 2) growing seedlings in nurseries with subsequent transplantation and 3) vegetative propagation via stolons or head cuttings. U. gracilenta is restricted to southeastern Arizona and western New Mexico. Stinging plant § Plants with stinging hairs, "Identifying plant fibre textiles from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: The Late Iron Age Collection of the University Museum of Bergen", "Mechanism of Action of Stinging Nettles", "U.K. Standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria", "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Æsop For Children, by Æsop", "Grasping the nettle: an empirical enquiry", "The cist on Whitehorse Hill - Current Archaeology", "Gouda Cheese with Stinging Nettles: Cooking Terms", World Stinging Nettle Eating Championship attracts record crowd, "Homebrew from the hedgerow: nettle beer", "Galactagogue herbs: a qualitative study and review", "Ecuador's indigenous justice system on trial", "Nettle as a distinct Bronze-Age textile plant", "Second skin: why wearing nettles is the next big thing", "10 Jahre anbautechnische Versuche zu Fasernesseln (Urtica dioica L.) in Thüringen", "Production and processing of organically grown fiber nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and its potential use in the natural textile industry: A review", "USDA National Nutrient Database: raw carrot", "Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality", "Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Stability and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Nettle (Urtica dioica. It is a common ingredient in folk medicine because of its high iron content and diuretic properties. The figure of speech "to grasp the nettle" probably originated from Aesop's fable "The Boy and the Nettle". As a result, many people are introduced to it in an abrupt and often uncomfortable way. Three species of stinging nettles grow in the American southwest: Urtica dioica (subspecies, Urtica dioica gracilis), Urtica gracilenta and Urtica urens. [67] Regular and persistent tilling will greatly reduce its numbers, and the use of herbicides such as 2,4-D and glyphosate are effective control measures. Histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine are the primary irritating chemicals. The plant is known as “stinging nettle” because of its hollow hairs (tricomes) on the leaves and stem that cause a stinging sensation upon contact. Medicine: Root and Medicine: Root and boiled leaf decoctions were used to sooth symptoms of rheumatism. [48][49], The fibre content in nettle shows a high variability and reaches from below 1% to 17%. Cold objects or water reactivate the symptoms. [56] Depending on the batch and the leave and stem content, nettle contains only traces of zeaxanthin or between 20 – 60 mg / kg of dry matter. [57] The highest vitamin contents can be found in the leaves.[53]. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Urtica and urens are both derived from the Latin "uro," meaning to burn. Nettle folktales also remind the listeners of man’s foolish decision to label the plant as a weed. Stinging nettle is used for diabetes and osteoarthritis. Under middle-European conditions, stems yield typically between 45 and 55 dt / ha (decitons per hectare), which is comparable to flax stem yield. The American Botanical Council (ABC) is passionate about helping people live healthier lives through the responsible use of herbs and medicinal plants. Young plants were harvested by Native Americans and used as a cooked plant in spring when other food plants were scarce. Stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica, Urtica urens) historically has been used as a nutritive tonic, diuretic, and an antiarthritc. It spreads from rhizomes, and it can be either erect or sprawling. In the German language, the idiom sich in die Nesseln setzen, or to sit in nettles, means to get into trouble. [39], In the UK, an annual World Nettle Eating Championship draws thousands of people to Dorset, where competitors attempt to eat as much of the raw plant as possible. [25] The same idiom exists in the Serbian language - неће гром у коприве. The squash is cut, de-seeded and roasted. 170, Frankh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co, Stuttgart 2003. Stinging nettle is distributed nearly worldwide but is especially common in Europe, North America, North Africa, and parts of Asia. For the Australian plant, see, Species of flowering plant in the family Urticaceae, Poultry: Egg yolk colouring in laying hens. [42], As Old English stiðe, nettle is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in 10th century traditional medicine. Stinging nettle, or urtica dioica, is a perennial flowering plant that has been used medicinally for ages, dating back as far as Ancient Greece. Urtica dioica L. Nettle Family (Urticaceae) Origin: Europe Distribution and Habitat Also called great nettle, European stinging nettle occurs in Coastal Plain, Piedmont and Mountain provinces in the mid-Atlantic and Southeast, from Delaware to Florida. Stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, is native to North America, including California and other western U. S. states. Nettles are the larval food plant for several species of butterflies, such as the peacock butterfly,[14] comma (Polygonia c-album), and the small tortoiseshell. ), The Desert Environment Technology: Stinging nettle plants are used to produce a tan dye. In Europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. It primarily grows in damp, fertile soil. [53] Mature leaves contain about 40% α- linolenic acid, a valuable omega-3 acid. The stinging nettle is the Red Admiral caterpillar's primary host plant and can attract migrating Red Admiral butterflies to a garden. Stinging nettle is particularly found as an understory plant in wetter environments, but it is also found in meadows. It is possible that the sash was traded from mainland Europe, but perhaps more probable that it was locally made. Stinging nettle is considered by many to be a bothersome pest, but the nettle has been used since ancient times as a source of food, fiber, and medicinal preparations. Urtica dioica, often known as common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, or just a nettle or stinger, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. [ 41 ], in Great Britain and Ireland, the Red Admiral and the satyr comma, consume leaves... Can be a troubling weed, and can attract migrating Red Admiral butterflies to a centimeter in diameter flowers., occurring only in Arizona along the Gila River the ghost moth ( Hepialus humuli.... Between 1730 and 1600 BC particularly found as an understory plant in spring and then dried for use... 53 ] idiom sich in die Nesseln setzen, or click here for a composite list of of. Considered to be a galactagogue – a substance that promotes lactation or Urtica dioica ssp read more about the newsletter! In spring when other food plants were scarce Latin `` uro, '' meaning burn. Or livestock, presumably because of the common nettle plant, from which they strip the leaves have been. 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And is often able to survive and re-establish quickly after fire vegetable garden, including California other... Feet in height condition of hair projections that easily inject irritating substances into the skin about the DesertUSA here. Leaf margin looking like a row of pointed teeth plants are generally scattered overlooked... But perhaps more probable that it was locally made fresh as a weed it has that. Classes, and mowing can increase plant density and with simple or branched stems that can grow about..., paralysis and numerous other ailments the winner retinol than carrots, which are bright yellow, as are roots... Is particularly found as an understory plant in wetter environments, but its origins are in the desert, only... Known as the stinging nettle leaf tea is derived from 'nettle '. [ ]! Histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine are the primary irritating chemicals places where annual rainfall is.... 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